50,000,000 BUSHELS WHEAT IN 1915
MANITOBA— SASKATCHEWAN— ALBERTA
ISSUED UNDER DIRECTION OF THE HON. W. J. ROCHE, MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR, OTTAWA, CANADA.
NO CONSCRIPTION; NO WAR TAX ON LAND
Every Canadian Soldier is a Volunteer and Canada's
War Expenses are Raised by an Increase of
Customs Tariff and Stamp Tax.
Canada is a self-governing country
and her participation in the present
European war has been pmely volun-
tary'. The revenue necessary to meet
the expense is being raised by an in-
crease of seven ami :> half per cent added
to the customs tariff, taxation of hanks,
loan companies, a tax on railway and
steamship tickets, telegrams, postal
matter, patent medicines and propri-
etary articles. The farm lands of
Canada arc free from any war tax and
the farmers exempt to draw the wealth
from the rich productiveness of the
soil, without contributing to the war
expenses, except as outlined above.
Immense areas of Western Canada are
yet open for free homesteads. Land
of the same quality that has produced
for the settlers now there from thirty
to sixty bushels of wheat and sixty to
one hundred bushels of oats to the acre,
is available, the only cost being a
ten-dollar entry fee.
Who is Eligible. The sole head of
a family or any male eighteen (IS) years
of age or over, who is a British subject
or who declares his intention to become a
British subject; a widow having minor
children of her own dependent upon
her for suppert.
Acquiring Homestead. To acquire
a homestead, applicant must make
entry in |>erson, either at the Dominion
Lands Office for the district in which
the land for which application is made
is located, or at a sub -agen cy authorised
to transact bu-iness in such district.
At the time of entry a fee of ten dollars
($10.00) mast be paid. The certificate
of entry which is then granted the
applicant gives him authority to enter
upon the land and maintain full posses-
sion of it as long as he complies with
the homestead requirements.
Residence. To earn patent for
homestead, a person must reside in a
habitable house upon the land for six
(6) months durine each of throe (.'I)
years. Such residence, however, need
not be commenced before six (<i) months
after the date on which entry for the
land was secured.
Improvement Duties. Before being
eligihle to apply for patent, a home-
steader must break (plouch up) thirty
(30) acres of the homestead, of which
twenty (20) acres must be cropped.
It is also required that a reasonable
proportion of this cultivation be done
during each homestead year. In some
cases substitution of stock, in lieu of
cultivation, is allowed.
Application for Patent. When a
homesteader has completed his resi-
dence and cultivation duties, he makes
application for patent before the agent
of Dominion Lands for the district in
which the homestead is located, or
before a sub-agent authorized to deal
with lands in such district. If the
duties have been satisfactorily per-
8th January, 1916.
Through either lack of knowledge or
from some ulterior motive numerous papers in
the United States have recently advised
American citizens that by going to Canada
they incurred the risk of being drafted as
soldiers in the present world-wide war. "Were
these articles confined only to that portion
of the pro-German press, which without regard
to the truth, have been publishing fictitious
news items intended to imjure the trade or
stir up friction between the States and Canada
the reports might safely be let go uncontra-
dicted, but when responsible Journals are mis-
led into publishing erroneous information re-
garding conscription it seems advisable to
make an official pronouncement upon the
I, therefore, beg to advise you that
all troops from Canada for the war have gone
voluntarily; that while the Government has
the power to enforce conscription, such action
has not been considered either advisable or
necessary, and that even were conscription
introduced it would apply to Canadian citizens
For your information when dealing
with this subject, I may say that many
Canadians resident in the United States and
many American citizens have crossed into
Canada since the outbreak of war, have
offered their services, been accepted, did
valuable work and in some cases gave up
their life in the cause of liberty and
Minister of the Interior.
Fac-simile of letter sent by Hon. Dr. Roche, Minister of Interior of
Canada, to United States Papers
formed, a pateDt is issued to the home-
steader shortly after without any further
action on his part, and the land thus
becomes his absolute property.
A settler may bring into Canada,
free of duty, live stock for the farm on
the following basis, if he has actually
owned such live stock abroad for at
least six months before his removal to
Canada, and has brought them into
Canada within one (1) year after his
arrival, viz: If horses only are brought
in, sixteen (1G) allowed, if cattle are
brought in, sixteen (Hi) allowed ; if sheep
are brought in, one hundred and sixty
(1G0) allowed; if swine are brought in,
one hundred and sixiy (160) allowed.
If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are
brought in together, or part of each,
the same proportions as above are to
Duty is to be paid on live stock in
excess of the number for which provision
is made as above. For customs entry
purposes a mare with a colt under six
(6) months old is to be reckoned as one
(1) animal; a cow with a calf under six
(G) months old is also to be reckoned
as one (1) animal. Cattle and other
live stock imported into Canada are
subject to quarantine regulations.
The following articles have free entry:
Settlers' effects, free, viz: Wearing
apparel, household furniture, books,
implements and tools of trade, occupa-
tion or employment; guns, musical
instruments, domestic sewing machines,
typewriters, live stock, bicycles, carts
and other vehicles, and agricultural
implements in use by the settler for at
least six (G) months before his removal
to Canada, not to include machinery
or articles imported for use in any
manufacturing establishment or for
sale; also books, pictures, family plate,
furniture, personal effects and heirlooms
left by bequest; provided that any
dutiable articles entered as settlers'
effects may not be so entered unless
brought with the settler on his first
arrival, and shall not be sold or other-
wise disposed of without payment of
duty until after twelve (12) months'
actual use in Canada.
The settler will be required to take
oath that all of the articles have been
owned by himself or herself for at
least six (6) months before removal to
Canada; that none have been imported
as merchandise, for use in a manufactur-
ing establishment or as a contractor's
outfit, or for sale; that he or she intends
becoming a permanent settler within
the Dominion of Canada and that the
"Live Stock" enumerated is intended
for his or her own use on the farm which
he or she is about to occupy (or culti-
vate), and not for sale or speculative
purposes, nor for the use of any other
person or persons.
For Particulars as to reduced railway fares and settlers' rates on stock and effects; for information of any
|nature relative 1<> Western Canada and the wonderful opportunities being offered to new settlers, write the
learest of the following Canadian Government Agents in the United States:
UNITED STATES AGENTS
. V. MacINNES, ITS Jefferson Ave., Detroit, Mich.
. J. BROUGHTON, Room 412, 112 W. Adams St., Chicago, 111.
EORGE A. HALL, 123 Second St., Milwaukee, Wis.
. A. GARRETT, 311 Jackson St., St. Paul, Minn.
RANK H. HEWITT, 5th St., Des Moines, Iowa.
G. ROUTLEDGE, 301 E. Genesee St., Syracuse, N. Y.
J. S. NETHERY, 82, Intcrurban Station, Columbus, Ohio.
. A. LAURIER, Marquette, Mich.
W. AIRD, 215 Trac t ion-Terminal Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind.
E. BLACK, Clifford Block, Grand Forks, N. D.
J. M. MacLACHLAN, Drawer 197, Watertown, S. D.
W. V. BENNETT, Room 4, Bee Bldg., Omaha, Neb.
GEO. A. COOK, 2012 Main St., Kansas City, Mo.
J. L. PORTE, Room 6, Dunn Block, Great Falls, Mont.
J. N. GRIEVE, Cor. 1st and Post Srs., Spokane, Wash.
J. E. La FORCE, 1139 Elm St., Manchester, N. H.
L. N. ASSELIN, Biddeford, Me.
MAX A. BOWLBY, 73 Tremont St., Boston, Mass.
P. A. HARRISON, 210 North 3d St., Harrisburg, Pa.
GILBERT ROCHE, Canadian Gov. Exhibit, San Diego, Cal.
J. C. KOEHN, Mountain Lake, Minn.
THE PRIZE WHEAT
BELT of the WORLD
An Average Wheat Yield of 30>£ Bushels to the Acre
for the Entire Country
40 and 50 Bushels of Wheat to the Acre Common in 1915
r ' — I* IK)
ESTERN CANADA has justly earned the proud distinction of
being classed as The Prize Grain Belt of the World. In
quality competition, the world's championship wheat and oats
were grown in Canada. Now, Western Canada proves that
championship-quality goes hand-in-hand with championship-
quantity. An average wheat yield of 30>2 bushels to the
acre over the three provinces, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and
Alberta, in 1915, constitutes a record that has never been
reached anywhere else in the world. The reports of yields,
printed in other pages, show these to have been remarkable, many farmers securing as high
as 70 bushels per acre, and a large number getting 40 to 50 bushels per acre, 75 to 115
bushels of oats to the acre, and these were quite common. Affidavits showing these immense
yields have been secured. What should be especially pleasing is that much of this was grown
by Americans whose friends may now be reading these pages.
Of wheat, oats, barley and flax the entire value would be over $530,000,000. Wheat
in the middle of January, 1916, was worth over one dollar per bushel on the farm.
With a production of 350,000,000 bushels of wheat selling over the dollar mark, the
aggregate return to the farmers of Western Canada is approximately $350,000,000.
The population of the three prairie provinces which produced this wealth is in round
figures 1,500,000. Of these, 500,000 live in the cities and towns and are not producers in an
agricultural sense, leaving 1,000,000 people to comprise the rural population who produced
this $350,000,000 crop of wheat. This means $350 for every man, woman and child in
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta who comprise the farming population. Taking an
average of five persons to a family, it means $1,750 income to every family from wheat alone.
Taking into account, also, the yield of oats, barley, flax, rye, peas, potatoes, etc., and
the production of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and other live stock, one can without exagger-
ation arrive at the conclusion that the average income per family throughout the prairie prov-
inces for the season of 1915 has been from $3,000 to $4,000.
Many individual farmers in 1915 have secured value to the extent of $10,000 to $15,000
from their crops in Western Canada.
REMARKABLE DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURE IN WESTERN CANADA
AN AMERICAN PAPER BEARS WITNESS TO THE EXTRAORDINARY OPPORTUNITIES
The Northwestern Agriculturist, of Minneapolis, Minn., in
a recent issue expresses the conviction that results obtained
in farming in western Canada have far exceeded any predic-
tions made as inducements to would-be settlers to take up land
in CANADA'S GREAT PRIZE WHEAT BELT.
Crops have been far greater than expected, and land values
have gone up so rapidly that fortunes are made in a few years.
The article reads as follows:
W hen a man in the States was told a few years ago that
he could secure as a free homestead 160 acres of land that
would produce from 20 to 40 bushels of wheat, or 60 to 80
bushels, of oats per acre, he was skeptical; or that he could pur-
chase lands at from $8 to SI 2 per acre, without residential
duties, he was doubtful. The homesteader now has land
worth from §15 to S70 an acre,
and the man who purchased has
seen his land double in price in
four years' time. Both have
found that the story of remark-
able yields has been verified.
They have had crops exceeding
those promised; they have seen
oats that have exceeded 100
bushels to the acre, and have
grown wheat that averaged 40
and as high as 50 bushels to
the acre, and their wheat was
not a 5S-pound to the bushel
article, but 62 and 63 pounds.
They have seen within the past
year or two trunk lines of rail-
way constructed through their
district, and t hrowing out branch
lines to the gates of their farms."
FIGURES THAT REVEAL THE
MAGNITUDE OF WESTERN
CANADA GRAIN CROP
Reverting to the estimated
wheat yield of Manitoba, Sas-
katchewan and Alberta — 304,-
200,000 bushels — it is considered
that some 40,000,000 bushels
will be required for seed, domestic
consumption, etc., leaving
264,000,000 bushels for export.
Some idea of what this means
may be gathered from the fol-
(a) — 264,000,000 bushels = 15,840,000,000 lbs. = 7,920,000
tons of wheat, to move which there would be required 198,000
40-ton freight cars loaded to their fullest capacity; 198,000
cars if placed in line together would make a train 1511 miles
long or one extending from Winnipeg to Salt Lake City. These
can would cover every mile of a 4-track line from Chicago to
Des Moines, Iowa, with 15 miles to spare.
They would reach from Winnipeg through Milwaukee, Chi-
cago, Cleveland, Buffalo and Albany to the Grand Central
Depot in New York City. Allowing 35 cars to a locomotive,
it would require 5,657 locomotives to haul 198,000 cars and
5,657 trains running at intervals of five minutes would take
more than 19J^ days to pass a given point.
Cb) — The full cargo capacity of S. S. "Missanabie" or
" Metaguma" is 250,000 bushels of grain. Therefore it would
require a fleet of 1,056 ships as large as the "Missanabie" or
Corn is now being successfully grown in many parts and excellent
wheat yields follow its cultivation.
"Metagama" to transport across the Atlantic the enormous
quantity of surplus crop produced by Canada's three Prairie
Provinces. Fancy what an "Armada" that would be!
(c)— 264,000,000 bushels of wheat = 15,840,000,000 lbs.
15,840,000,000 lbs. wheat- 280 = 56,571,421 barrels flour;
56,571,421 barrels flour X 175 = 9,899,998,675 loaves of bread!
24 oz. each. Enough bread to give 27,123,284 people one loaf
of bread per diem for a whole year.
CAUSES OF BIG YIELDS OF GRAIN IN WESTERN CANADA
—SOIL, CLIMATE AND GOOD CULTIVATION
The grain crops of Western Canada in 1915 may truly be
said to be phenomenal, and many different reasons are now
being advanced. The first of these is the light crop of 1914,
which left a great deal of nour-
ishment for the crop of 1915.
The second is that more land
was well prepared for crop in the
fall of 1914 than- in any other
fall in the history of the province.
This certainly had a beneficial
effect on the crop. A liberal
rainfall in the month of June wa3
also advantageous. Another
reason suggested by close stu-
dents of agriculture is that the
wheat crop year bore a wonder-
ful bloom. Practically every
cell of the wheat head was
fertilized and each head filled
Those who have given the
matter careful thought say that
there is no reason why Western
Canada should ever have small
average yields. Farming is now
becoming more of a science than
it ever has been, and with the
knowledge of what Western
Canada soils can do, and the
proper application of labor and
the conservation of the soil prop-
erties there is no reason why
these lands should not always
produce good crops. These
things considered, there are
those who prophesy continued
heavy yields in all portions of
Western Canada. Take the
year 1915, for instance. |There are many cases reported of a
farmer in a district getting fifty to fifty-five bushels of wheat
per acre. His neighbors having the same soil, the same amount
of rainfall, got but thirty. And why? Might it not have
been the difference in cultivation. There is no question that
breaking or summer-fallowed land always gives better results
than fall or spring ploughed land. Yet one of the unaccountable
things of 1915 crop was the excellent yield reported from
"stubblcd-in" pieces. As high as 45 bushels per acre in some
cases, and this is generally considered the poorest kind of farming.
The figures in the opposite column are esti-
mates of Dec. 1, 1915. Since then a revision
shows the wheat crop of Manitoba, Saskatch-
ewan and Alberta to be nearly 400,000,000
WESTERN CANADA HOLDS
FREE HOMES FOR MILLIONS. THE LAND SITUATION
IN WESTERN CANADA
The following tables will give a quick conception of the
possibilities for settlement in Western Canada. In January,
1915, less than one-half of the Total Land Area of Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and Alberta had been surveyed. Of a Total
Area in the three provinces of 454,7S9,67S acres, the Surveyed
Area embraced 195,341,726 acres.
The Total Area Surveyed and Available For Homestead
Entry was 28,075,000 acres.
This is equivalent to over 175,000 quarter-sections of 160
acres each, any one of which was open for entry to the first
qualified person making application.
35,000 Free Farms Awaiting Settlers in Manitoba
Total Land Area 143,570,698 Acres
Total Surveyed Area 34,558,979 Acres
Area under Homesteads 7,795,000 Acres
Area Available for Homestead Entry 5,575,000 Acres
50,000 FREE FARMS
Awaiting Settlers in Saskatchewan
Total Land Area 152,340,320 Acres
Total Surveyed Area 79,218,076 Acres
Area under Homesteads 32,118,000 Acres
Area Available for Homestead Entry 8,000,000 Acres
90,000 Free Farms Awaiting Settlers in Alberta
Total Land Area 158,878,678 Acres
Total Surveyed Area 81,564,671 Acres
Area under Homesteads 20,456,000 Acres
Area Available for Homestead Entry 14,500,000 Acres
There is no War Tax on Land and no Taxes
of any nature on Farm Stock, Implements, Chat-
tels or Buildings. Western Canada wants the
farms improved and therefore improvements are
WHAT WESTERN CANADA HOMESTEADERS HAVE
DONE IN WORLD'S COMPETITIONS
The homesteaders of western Canada, in competition with
those of the rest of the agricultural world, have demonstrated
that the best grains and the best stock are being raised in the
provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.
The homesteaders of these provinces are entering the arena
of the keenest agricultural competitions on this continent,
pitted against the wealthiest farmers, ranchers and cattle
kings and carrying off all the big prizes.
W hat the homesteader is doing is best demonstrated by the
following achievements of the past few years:
1911 AND 1914 WORLD'S BEST WHEAT
Thousand-Dollar Gold Prize — Xew York Land Show, — and
International Soil Products Exhibition, Wichita, Kan. Won by
Seager Wheeler, Rosthern, Sask.
1912 BEST BUSHEL HARD WHEAT
Dry Farming Congress, Lethbridge, Alta. — Rumley Engine,
value 82,500. Won by Henry Holmes, Raymond, Alta.
1913 BEST BUSHEL HARD WHEAT
Dry Farming Congress, Tulsa, Okla. — A threshing machine
won by Paul Gerlach, Allen, Sask., with 71.1 oz. to the bushel.
1911-13-14 WORLD'S BEST OATS
Colorado 81,500 Trophy — Won outright by J. C. Hill & Sons,
Lloydminster, Sask., with one peck of "Abundance Oats."
Mr. Hill has asked permission to donate a similar prize of
equal value, to be known as the "Canadian Trophy."
1915 FIRST AND SECOND IN HARD WHEAT— THIRD
FROM CANADIAN SEED GRAIN— FIRST IN ALFALFA
At The International Dry Farming Congress, Denver, Colo.,
the World's Sweepstakes for the best bushel of hard spring
wheat shown at the International Products Exposition, was
awarded to Seager Wheeler, of Rosthern, Saskatchewan.
The prize for the second best bushel of wheat also went to
Saskatchewan, being won by J. S. Fields, of Regina. The
tnird prize exhibit was not grown in Canada, but was raised
from seed imported from Saskatchewan.
The display of alfalfa was of the finest, W. A. Abbott, Maple
Creek, Sack., taking first place in a class of twenty entries.
Western Canada hog prices
axe higher than those
Canada's barley-fed hogs
make 200 lbs. at
WESTERN CANADA'S GREAT DEVELOPMENT
THE increase in wheat production in Western Canada in the last few years is but an index of the great
development which is bound to follow in the next decade. The truth is that Canada's wheat lands have
been discovered, and nothing can stem or turn aside the stream of immigration that has set in from
the United States and European countries.
Those who come now may get cheap or free lands, and choice of location, according to their means, and will
soon be in a position to take advantage of the era of prosperity that is assured for the future.
The land is going quickly, but there are millions of acres still left, as productive and fit for settlement as
any already taken, and which are being rapidly reached by railways.
WESTERN CANADA HAS A HOME FOR YOU IN
THE PRIZE WHEAT BELT OF THE WORLD
In the olden days all roads led to Rome, but to-day they
lead to the Empire where wheat is King, — The Prize Wheat
Belt of Western Canada.
A careful investigation shows that conditions for settlement
are better and the opportunities greater than they were ten
years ago. At that time settlers had to go farther from the
line of railway than they have today, in addition to which
markets have improved and farmers are getting better prices
than ever before.
While there is today a great world-wide demand for wheat
and the acreage is increasing rapidly; while, moreover, great
efforts will have to be made to keep pace with the demand for
this, the most important of our cereal crops, there is at the
same time a wonderful opening in the western provinces of
Canada for mixed farming. The domestic market for butter,
eggs, milk, vegetables and meat is one of the best in the world,
because most of these commodities are being imported in large
quantities and prices are consequently high. There is no
doubt about the demand, neither is there any question that
people who know how can produce all these commodities with
profit to themselves and advantage to the consumer.
The wheat areas of the world are becoming exhausted or
utilized for other crops. Consumption of wheat is increasing
at a greater rate than production, and this era of high prices
will continue. This scarcity is Canada's opportunity, and she is
quickl/ taking a leading place in the wheat-producing nations
of the world. The problem of our agriculture
is the problem of supplying bread to the ever-
increasing millions of America and Europe, and,
while marvellous strides have been made in the
facilities for transportation of agricultural prod-
ucts, yet the real solution of the problem is
bringing the population to the food, rather than
the food to the population. The vision that
meets us here is one of ample land awaiting
man, and of possibilities of agricultural production which can
be realized only by increased immigration. Before and above
all of what transportation has done, and may yet do to carry
agriculture away, the more reasonable prospect is the settle-
ment of these wide areas by a population cultivating the soil
which this great country has.
THE WAY TO LOOK AT IT
After you have harvested your crop from land that is worth
anywhere from $75 to $200 per acre, and you do not own a
great deal of that, not nearly as much as you desire, possibly
you are renting a farm, paying the greater part of your hard-
earned money to the landlord; or, again, it may be that you
are working on a farm with no prospects, or very slim ones
at the most, of ever owning a home of your own, in a country
where land values are greatly beyond your means of obtaining,
it is then you turn your face to some newer place where there
is more room for you, where you can get from 500 to 1,000
acres of the finest agricultural land in close proximity to a
market, for the price you can sell that 100 acres of yours back
home. If you are a renter, it is possible to get a farm of your
own, either free, by way of a homestead of 160 acres from
the Dominion Government, or to purchase land close to the
railway centres at such low prices and long terms, that it is
less by far than your rent would be in the old settled districts,
where you are at present living, with the further advantage
that every little payment you make brings you that much
closer to having your own home and farm. In the event of
your working on a farm in western Canada,
you are able to get very high wages during
the summer and harvest months, then put in
the winter on your homestead. At the end
of three years, when you receive title from
the Government, a railway will have been
built close to your land, increasing the value
so greatly that you will be comparatively
A Jersey herd on a Western Canada farm.
It will be noticed that there is magnificent natural shelter,
market for all dairy products.
There is a splendid
A LAND FULL OF PROMISE AND AMPLE REALIZATION
Looking the landscape over in the Edmonton district. This is a field of oats cut green for feed.
The crop cures in the stock and makes excellent winter feed for horses and
cattle at low cost, three tons to the acre being common.
is a mighty re-
over a million square
plains, great fresh
water lakes and broad
water courses, and
primeval forests, hills
and grassy dales, high-
and park-like valleys.
All this is Canada
West. The American
farmer looking north
toward Canada feels
the significance to hu-
manity and to himself
of this vast region, the
multitude of fives to
which it can bring
happiness and success,
and the great constructive role it is to play toward a world
broken by destructive forces.
Thoughts such as these have resulted in dotting the vast
stretches of Canada West with homesteads, farms, villages,
towns, and cities, have covered broad plains with waving grain,
and stretched a network of railways in every direction.
Canada West is no longer a great uninhabited expanse. To
every district the railroads have brought the conveniences of
modern civilization and the means of communication with
all parts of the world. To the advantages of a sturdy pioneer
life are here added those of the most advanced social com-
munities. Modern methods of agriculture mean ease for the
farmer of Canada West, his family has every home comfort and
social advantage and his children are assured the best of school-
ing. And still the area in Canada West is so vast that in the
three provinces, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, only
eight per cent of the land is being tilled. Thousands of 160-acre
free homesteads await the energetic enterprise of the practical
home-maker to transform them into wealth-producing lands and
bring him independence and success.
The conditions governing such occupation are simple and
easy. After the filing of a claim and the payment of a ten
dollar entrance fee, the only requirement for complete owner-
ship is residence on the land for six months each year during
three years. There are great level prairies to be obtained in
this way which will make ideal grain-growing areas and from
which record crops of wheat can be raised with unprecedentedly
small expenditure of time, effort, and money. Oats, barley,
and flax, can also be raised successfully on these broad plains.
Vast tracts of such land in exceedingly desirable portions of
these three provinces are yet untenanted. Hundreds of thou-
sands of farmers from the United States have filed on these
lands and, as has been said, there are hundreds of thousands
more available vacant homesteads yet to be filed on. There
thej' find certain and rich returns on their investments, and
they can look forward to a rosy future, before, so uncertain.
Large areas of untenanted lands are adapted to mixed farm-
ing. There is abundant water and fodder for the cattle which
thrive on the rich grasses. Such cattle as are brought to the
boundary for importation by settlers are inspected and any
animals exhibiting signs of disease are not permitted to enter
the country. The
standard of health in
this respect is very
high and rigidly main-
tained to protect the
cattle stock of the
farmers already in the
Dairying is carried
on extensively and
with highly successful
results, the rich milk
testifying to the nu-
tritive quality of the
abundant grasses on
which the cattle feed.
Creameries for the
manufacture of butter
and cheese are numer-
ous and prosperous.
The same qualities
of soil that fatten the
large herds of cattle
are favourable also to
sheep raising, a pursuit
which has assumed large proportions in this country. Many of
the valleys of British Columbia are particularly well suited to
mixed farming and large crops of potatoes and hay as well as
wheat and oats are raised. In this province fruits of all kinds,
of unusual flavor and excellence, are grown. The Pacific Ocean
is a large contributor to the wealth not only of British Columbia
but of the great central expanse lying between it and Hudson
Bay. Strong air currents carry heat and moisture from the
ocean and in many parts influence the winter temperature to
such a degree that cattle and horses may pasture out through
the entire year.
Home building is easy and inexpensive since timber is to be
found in large quantities in the forest-lands and timbered
stretches throughout the provinces.
All these facts point to the wisdom of securing agricultural
lands such as these, which will yield larger profits than almost
any other in any region. The wide acres of Canada West
will amply reward ordinary care in working, and surpass in
productiveness, when scientifically treated, much of the valuable
land of the United States.
Now is the time to choose the best tracts of land. The
demand for food stuffs will soon pass all precedents, and
Western Canada has been provided by nature with every
advantage for supplying the demand. The radiant sunshine,
the well distributed rains, the deep fertility of the soil, the
ease and rapidity of production, all point to it as the im-
portant food producer of the world. The demand from Europe
for years to come will be great and insistent. The world
must turn to these vast untenanted lands for preservation upon
which thousands are yearly taking up residence.
Towns and cities spring up, and railroads penetrate in every
direction to bear away vast harvests to the world's markets.
The scheme of speculators to allow lands to lie idle while wait-
ing for an increase in value is no longer tenable. The value of
these lands is now in their great productivity, in the actual
crops the}' can produce. The call is now for the energy and
initiative of the practical farmer, the producer the man who
knows how to make the land yield its riches, and to whom the
world looks for support.
If there is any one fact more than another regarding Canada
that has in recent years been heralded abroad, and that has
served to attract attention to the Dominion, it is the almost limit-
less expanse and the immense fertility of her western prairies.
THE WHEAT CROP OF WESTERN CANADA IN 1915 WAS 350,000,000 BUSHELS
THE EFFECT OF THE WAR
"A Growth for Canada in the next Thirty Years
Greater than that for any Part of the Continent."
Extracts from an address by C. W. Barron, of the Wall Street
Journal before the Canadian Club of Toronto:
"There are only two great unturned arable soils in the world
to-day awaiting human occupation. These are in Russia and
the upper part of the North American continent.
"Now when it comes to the settlement of this war — the
settling up and the settling down — you know or ought to know
who has the land and where the
future settlements will be! You
are 7^ of the North American
continent in population and you
have more than 7% of the rail-
road mileage. In respect not
only to railroads, but in some
political and financial aspects,
you are better off than we are in
the t inted States. The govern-
ment here aids and helps to fi-
nance j our transportation. You
have a homogeneous govern-
ment. You are protected on two
sides by the oceans; on the north
by nature; and on the south you
have no Belgium and no Ger-
many. You are protected on the
south because no one would think
of going through your southern
boundary. You are the best
protected people in the world!
What better situation can you
think of, when you ask who is
going to get the material benefits
in the settlements after the war?
What you need is more mineral
development, more agricultural
development, more transporta-
tion, more people; and all these,
it seems to me, you will get
after the war.
"I don't want to swell your
pride too much by telling you
how tremendous will be the
material results to you after this
war. We have not in the United
States the available arable land
that you have. You have pro-
portionately more railroads; and
so long as a country needs for
its prosperity freedom, good
position, you are the one people
who have the land, with the
government, and good transportation, you are in a favoured
position, right climate, and transportation, and you are ready
to invite the whole world to come in.
"In the next generation you will not be 7% of the North
American people in population and growth but a far larger
part. I see a growth for Canada in the next thirty years greater
than for any part of this continent. Indeed, I think you will
grow in the next thirty years faster, broader, and greater than
any part of this continent ever has grown in any thirty years.
"The United States will profit by the lessons of the war in
the world-competition. In this the futures of the United
St.it* - and Canada lie along the same path. Both have expe-
The complete fall operations on every farm
rienced the impetus of war business. The physical features of
the two countries are the same, with the difference that Canada's
resources have scarcely yet been touched."
CANADA'S UNDEVELOPED FIELD
A Winnipeg paper, with a well-known reputation for con-
servatism in economic matters says:
"Canada's undeveloped field should prove a mighty factor
after the war in adjusting the country's business from one
period to another. Agriculture, moreover, must continue to be
the basic source of the nation's prosperity. The staggering figures
of this year's crop, showing increases in production of 50 per
cent over last year, give a slight
idea of the future wealth stored
in vast stretches of prairie plain
yet untouched by the plough.
The estimates of the crop for
1915, made during August and
September by authoritative
people in the West, who are
usually right in their calcula-
tions, have all been revised to
meet the phenomenal returns
from the threshers. The Do-
minion Government on Septem-
ber 13, estimated the western
wheat crop at 275,772,200
bushels, but on October 15
those figures were changed to
304,200,000 bushels. At least it
would seem now that the wheat
crop of Manitoba, Saskatchewan,
and Alberta for the year 1915
would amount to more than
MONETARY RETURNS FOR
THE WESTERN CROP
The amount of money which
the West is receiving for its grain
has not yet been wholly appre-
ciated. Up to the 10th December
the Canadian West had received
some 170 million dollars for 182
million bushels of its grain crop,
of which 149 million bushels was
True, the shadow of war is still
upon us. But hostilities are six
thousand miles away — where we
propose to keep them. Inter-
nally, the land is at absolute
peace. Military efforts have
all been voluntary, and conse-
quently have not disorganized
the ordinary business of the coun-
try. Economists tell us when
the war is over no country will
be in better shape than Canada,
because our prosperity is not dependent upon the war, or upon
the market for luxuries, but upon our production of food, which
Europe must consume, whether at war or at peace.
Western Canada is the last great area of cheap, fertile land
with democratic government and a white man's climate. When
the present upheaval settles down, the rush for such land is
sure to be tremendous. The thoughtful settler is the one who
foresees events, makes his decision and selects his farm in
advance of the multitude. And every settler who brings to
Ganada the means necessary to a modest start, combined with
enterprise, intelligence, and good citizenship, can look forward
with the fullest confidence to prosperity and happiness.
CANADA'S WONDERFUL PROGRESS
IT IS OVER THE HILL— SPLENDID BANK CLEARINGS — CROP RETURNS REVEAL
VAST POSSIBILITIES FOR FUTURE.
"There are opportunities for investment in Canada now that may prove attractive to American capital.
Land prices in the West are low and wa^es less than on this side of the line, and whatever the outcome of the
war, the future of the Dominion is assured as one of prosperity in the development of its vast resources."
— Chicago Tribune.
country must suffer a relapse, and straightway return to a
state of inactivity and hard times. The grain shipments have
been the biggest in the history of Winnipeg and in the history
of the twin ports, Fort William and Port Arthur. The mail
order houses have had a big year, the rush of fall orders ex-
ceeding all previous years and taxing the capacity of these estab-
lishments, whose most sanguine expectations have been exceeded
by the actual business done.
The tide has turned in Western Canada. The people of the
West are forging ahead, forging ahead in actual production and
in creation of wealth, giving generously to charitable and other
funds, paying up their back debts, while going along carefully as
regards any creation of new debts. They are economizing but
not scrimping, acting cautiously but not miserly. The financial
heads of Eastern Canada, of the United States and of Europe
are no longer criticizing Western Canada; rather they are un-
stintedly offering their praise and their compliments. The
financial press recognizes that the tide has turned in Western
Canada, and it has been published to the world.
The condition of Western Canada at the close of 1915 is one of
optimistic prosperity, backed by the same determination of
western people to go on increasing their productiveness and
maintaining the records which they have already established.
The trade revival of Western Canada is the happiest feature in
the business survey of the whole Dominion for 1915 and in the
outlook for 1916.
A SHORT time ago the Canadian Government asked for pri-
vate subscriptions to a loan of 50 million dollars. Less
than a month was given for completion of the subscription.
On November 30th, the day upon which subscriptions were to
cease, it was found that 110 millions of dollars had been sub-
scribed, or 60 million dollars more than the amount asked.
If there were any so pessimistic as to imagine that Canada was
passing through a period of hard times the wonderful showing of
this subscription should put aside all doubts of Canada's rapidly
The trade revival in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta is
an actuality and not a myth. There is to-day a spirit of opti-
mism in the air, just as two years ago there prevailed the oppo-
site spirit of pessimism.
A general trade revival has been felt in every department of
business in the Prairie Provinces. The agriculturists are in better
shape than they have ever been before in their lives. No farm-
ers of any country are in better financial condition and in a more
general state of prosperity than are the farmers of Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and Alberta. The farmers have harvested a
record crop — a crop which enriches them to the extent of some-
thing nearly $550,000,000.
In the cities the prosperity of the country has been reflected.
Everywhere business is on the hustle. The wholesalers and the
retailers and the implement dealers find business good. The
banks and other collection
houses find collections satis-
factory, and financial men
declare that westerners are
paying up their debts.
In Winnipeg the bank clear-
ings have been the largest in
history, some weeks exceed-
ing the figures of Montrealand
Toronto. For 1915, they were
a billion and a half of dollars,
representing business on a per
capita basis or* over §7,000
per head for every man,
woman, and child in the city,
and have gone ahead of big
manufacturing cities like
Buffalo, and run a close
second to Detroit; it has
6hown bigger bank clearings
than the middle west cities of
Minneapolis and Duluth, and
has exceeded Los Angeles,
Seattle, and other noted
shipping centres. It is now
6ide by side with the ten
biggest cities in North Ameri-
ca in amount of bank
But because the war helped
Canada recover quickly from
a natural economic depres-
sion it does not follow that,
at the end of the war, the
A Self-Governing Country
There is no War Tax on Land nor is there any
Canada is a part of the British Empire. The duties of the government
are divided between the Dominion and the provinces. The system is popularly
termed " Responsible Government." Every government official is fully and
entirely responsible to the people for every administrative act of himself and
colleagues. This, more than any other form, places the people inlmore direct
and absolute control.
The Dominion owns and controls the administration of the public lands
in the three Central provinces and throughout Northern Canada. The
responsibility for their development rests upon the Dominion Government
which therefore assumes the work of promoting immigration. The Dominion
Parliament makes and enforces the criminal laws, controls the militia, post
office, railways, indirect taxation by the tariff and excise, trade relations with
other countries, and, speaking generally, all matters of national concern.
The Provinces are governed by legislatures elected by the people. They
have "Responsible Government" on the same principles as the Dominion
Government. They are charged with providing the civil law and administering
both civil and criminal laws. They provide for education and municipal
government and for direct taxation in their support, and generally all matters
of a purely provincial or local character.
Military Service in Canada is Not Compulsory
Any contribution to Greit Britain, whether in money or men, is entirely
voluntary. There exists, though, such a friendly feeling to the mother
country, that as in the case of the European War, voluntary contributions
are given with the heartiest good will. It would be possible for Canada to
remain entirely neutral, but to do so would not be natural. It, therefore,
rests absolutely with oneself whether he care to take up arms. There is no
War tax on land.
One of the best indications
possible, of increased pros-
perity financially in a com-
munity is the meeting of
liabilities, and the clearing off
of mortgages, notes, etc.
Inquiries made by some of
the loan companies indicate
that conditions in this respect
are of a highly satisfactory
. The representative of one
large loan company which
does a big business covering a
large area in the West, states
that over 80 per cent of the
arrears owing a short time
ago had recently come in.
Farmers are not only clean-
ing up their liabilities so far
as the interest is concerned,
but they are very keen to
pay up their principal, and
insist upon it being taken.
This is a condition that is
to be found all through
Western Canada. And why
not? With almost every far-
mer having a crop of wheat
of from 30 to 40 bushels per
acre, and realizing from
$27.00 to S36.00 per acre in
cash, and on land that cost
him probably less than half
this — why shouldn't he be in
WESTERN CANADA'S 1915 CROP AVERAGES $1500 TO EACH FARMER
WHAT THE SOIL WILL PRODUCE
THE soil in western Canada is, generally speaking, a black
or brown chocolate loam with a clay subsoil, and is con-
ceded to be the best cereal producer in the world, and,
incidentally, it is quite easily cultivated, as the country for the
greater part is open. It will grow successfully anything in the
shape of grain, grasses, fruits
and roots that can be raised
wF in the western part of the
Ur$* * United States, with the pos-
sible exception of field corn
and a few of the more tender
varieties of garden truck and
AN important consideration to those who are not familiar
with the country is the question of climate, which has
often been much misrepresented. A former Governor-
General of Canada, the Marquis of Lome, once said; "The climate
has honest heat in summer and honest cold in winter. The sun
is seldom hidden, and men
see many seasons and are
healthy, strong and active."
Owing to the dryness of the
atmosphere and the amount
of sunshine, people do not
mind the cold as much as
In some of the newer districts of Western Canada are to be found attractive spots for mixed farming. Mixed farming can be carried on
with the greatest degree of success, with pleasure and profit.
fruits. These latter will, however, very soon be raised in
great quantities and with equal results to those obtained in
the older settled districts of the east and south. It is but a
matter of having the land settled and brought under cultiva-
tion, in this way changing climatic conditions by turning over
the soil to the sun's rays. The principal and most profitable
crop now grown is wheat. The quality of this product of
western Canada has been amply demonstrated by the flour
milling concerns of Canada, the United States, and, in fact,
the world, the better grade of flour being obtained by mixing
Canadian No. 1 Hard wheat with the softer
grades of other countries. The soil will raise
anything up to fifty bushels of wheat per acre,
though the average for the three' prairie
provinces is not so high as that.
Oats are also a very rich crop, heavy yields
being the rule. In some districts that are
specially adapted for the growing of this cereal,
great success is met with. Other very suc-
cessful and important crops are flax and barley.
Rye and peas also have a very luxuriant
growth. Potatoes are very easily grown, as
are turnips, mangels, and all field crops of a
Fruit growing is receiving some attention in
the more thickly settled districts and those giving it their time
are reaping a handsome reward. Apples and plums, though not
grown extensively, have in many sections of the west matured in
season and are of good quality. Raspberries, strawberries, and
currants of various varieties are receiving considerable attention,
and a great number of farmers are growing them for the market,
which in this case, as in most all other lines, is much greater
than the supply, thus always assuring good prices.
The productiveness of the soil, and the easy terms upon
which land may be acquired from the government, or purchased,
guarantee the success of the man who is willing to work and
take advantage of the possibilities that Western Canada affords.
Hon. Dr. Roche has given
official denial to the statement
that there is conscription in
Canada or likely to be. None
but Canadian citizens could
possibly be included, and it
takes three years' residence to
become such. Neither is there
any War Tax on land. There
is no tax of any kind on stock,
chattels or improvements on
the readings of the thermometer might lead the inexperienced
to believe. Ordinary, healthy people enjoy it, but in winter
they wear good warm clothing out of doors.
The climate of parts of Alberta, even far north of Peace River
valley, is much modified by the chinook winds, which, tempered
by the warm Japanese current of the north Pacific, blow through
the passes of the Rocky Mountains and sometimes, even in
mid-winter, make the climate extremely mild. In an ordinary
season, horses and cattle thrive on the open ranges all winter,
though provident farmers keep a supply of hay on hand for
Considered broadly, the summers of the
Canadian West are characterized by high day
temperatures and an abundance of sunshine,
the winters by clear, cold weather. Usually
spring advances very rapidly, for though the
mean temperature during April and May may
be in the neighbourhood of 35°, the daily
maximum would be at least 10° to 12° higher.
The annual precipitation over the whole area
is comparatively fight, but is somewhat greater
for the first than for the second and third
prairie levels. In a general way, the rainfall
becomes lighter as we proceed westward. The
greater part of the rain over the district, however,
falls' during the growing season, and hence is particularly effective
agriculturally. The distribution has been found one that, for the
most part, is well adapted to the production of the finest quality
of wheat. In considering the climate of the Canadian prairies,
the fact should not be lost sight of that, although the total
annual precipitation averages only 13.35 inches for the provinces
of Saskatchewan and Alberta and 17.34 inches for Manitoba,
the amount falling between April 1 and October 1 ia
respectively 9.39 inches and 12.87 inches, or 70.3 and 74.2
per cent of the whole. The average, 12.87 inches, in Manitoba
is not far short of the average for Ontario during the same
SUCCESS ACHIEVED BY VARIOUS METHODS
THE new man is not looked upon as an intruder but as a
produeer of new wealth, an enricherof the commonwealth.
The new man should buy his tools as he needs them.
Until he has more than thirty acres under crop he can work
with a neighbour, in exchange for the services of a binder.
A cow is a good investment, and a vegetable garden easily
pays its own way.
The Man Who Has Less Than $300.— Had better work for
wages for the first year. He can hire out to established farmers
and thereby gain a knowledge of agricultural methods.
The Man Who Has $600.— Get hold of your 160-acre free
homestead at once, build your shack, and proceed with your
homestead duties. During the six months that you are free to
absent yourself from your homestead, hire out to some successful
farmer and get enough to tide you over the other half of the
year which you must spend in residence upon the land. When
you have put in six months' residence during each of these years
and have complied with the improvement conditions required
by the Land Act, you become the absolute owner.
The Man Who Has 51,000. — Either homestead a farm or
purchase one on the installment plan, and get to work at once.
A small house and out-buildings will be required, with horses
or oxen, a plough, a wagon, etc. Working out in the harvest
season will be necessary to bring in money to tide over the winter
T. Lewis, of Chas. Lewis & Co., Minneapolis, one
of the largest grain brokerage firms in the United States
says: "It looks to me as if Canada was in for a big boom."
4 milch cows at $65. . . 260.00
4 hogs at $15 60.00
4 sheep at $8 32.00
miscellaneous tools. . 20.00
100 bushels oats at 40 cts. 40.00
10 bu.seedpotatoesat$l 10.00
seed wheat and oats 100.00
unforeseen items. . . . 60.00
and get the crop sown in good condition. As the crop grows,
opportunity is given to make the house comfortable, to look
around and plan ahead.
What $1,500 Will Buy. — No farmer should come expecting
to make a homestead pay its own way the first year. He needs
buildings, an equipment, and money for the maintenance of
himself and family until his first harvest can be garnered.
After securing his land and putting up his buildings, $1,500
w ill give him a fairly good equipment to begin with. This will
probably be expended as follows:
3 good horses $475.00
1J4 set harness 45.00
1 combination plough.. . . 30.00
1 disc harrow 36.00
1 drag harrow 18.00
1 seeder ." . . . 90 00
1 mower 65.00
1 rake 30 00
1 strong wagon 94.00
1 set sleighs 25.00
If the settler locates early in the season he may
get in a crop of potatoes or oats in May or early
Will a Quarter-Section Pay?— "Will the tilling
of a quarter of a section (160 acres) pay?" when
asked of those who have tried
it provokes the invariable an-
swer that "It will and does
pay." "We, or those follow-
ing us, will make less than that
pay, " said one who had proved
up on a homestead. Another
pointed to the fact that many
of those who commenced on
homesteads are now owners of
other quarters — and even larg-
er areas, showing that they
have progressed in obtaining
more land, while others still
have stuck to the homestead
Shall You Buy, Rent or Homestead?— The question is one
that Canadian Government officials are frequently asked,
especially in the homes of a family of boys who have become
interested in western Canada. If the young man has grit and
inexperience let him homestead. Treating this subject in a
newspaper article, a correspondent very tersely says, "He will
survive the ordeal and gain his experience at less cost."
Another has ample knowledge of farming practice, experience
in farm management, but lacks pluck and staying power
and the capacity to endure. The food for thought and
opportunity for action provided by the management of an
improved farm would be just the stimulus required to make
him settle into harness and work out his own salvation.
Many men make excellent, progressive, broad-gauge farmers
by renting or buying an improved farm in a settled
district and keeping in touch with more advanced thought
Every Young Man Wants a Farm For Himself. There
is an unprecedented demand for farm labour in Western
Canada. Wages from $30 to $40 a month, with board
and lodging during spring, summer and fall seasons.
A young man's earnings and experience should in two years
establish him on a homestead, thereby soon becoming
one of Canada's prosperous and contented settlers.
Let the boy take the route that appeals to him. Don't force
him to homestead if he pines to rent. Don't try to keep him
at home if homesteading looks good to him. The thing to
remember is that success may be achieved by any one of the
three routes. If the foundation is all right, hard work the
method, and thoroughness the motto, it makes little difference
what road is taken — whether homesteading, buying, or
renting — western Canada is big enough, and good farming
■ It is not only in cereals that the Western Provinces of Canada
make such a wonderful showing, but the possibilities in other
ways are great. The success of the vegetable crops has awak-
ened a new interest in the possibilities of canning vegetables for
export, and it is not unlikely that future years will see some of
the largest vegetable canneries on the continent located in the
prairie provinces. Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta are
contributing largely to the dressed meat exports of the Dominion,
the packing plants of the prairie provinces are fast becoming of
remarkable importance in Canada. Efforts have
been made to impress upon the agriculturists of
Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta the importance
of increasing the dairy output, so that there will be
sufficient production to permit of export. They can
do the producing in such quan-
tities as would permit of enor-
mous exports of butter and
cheese, and unlimited markets
arc available all over the world.
These horses have never been stabled
NO PASSPORT is re-
quired on entering or leav-
ing Canada. Every fa-
cility is accorded desir-
able settlers to secure
best information as to
location of homesteads.
Authentic Reports From All Parts
TO THE average Araercan farmer, the reports of forty, fifty and sixty
bushels to the acre wheat crops are almost incredible. The names
and addresses of many Western Canadian farmers who have harvested
these yields are given. To those who cannot believe these reports,
it is suggested that they communicate direct with any of the farmers in Canada,
and get further convincing proof that Western Canada is the prize grain belt
of the world— championship holder of both quality and quantity records.
Wheat Over Six Feet High. — M. N. Cadwell, of Windom, Cottonwood
County. Minnesota, in a letter published in the Windom Reporter says:
"In western Saskatchewan we found the oat harvest about done, and a wheat
crop ready for harvest that made a good yield of from 25 to 65 bushels per acre.
Some wheat that was sown on stubble, nothing done only sown with a drill,
made a yield of from 25 to 35 bushels per acre. Oats the same, 50 bushels
per acre. I drove the binder twelve days. Some of the wheat was very thick
and stood over six feet high."
Bin Yields Ila\e Made Him Independent.— Wm. H. Simpson of Minburn,
Alberta, started on a homestead seven years ago bringing $1,000 worth of
settlers' effects. To-day he has 527 acres of land worth $25 to S30 per acre
and good buildings. The land, stock and cash would be worth around $20,000
to $1,000 seven years ago, and the most crop he had in any one year was 150
acres. He always worked his land well and got well paid for it.
Started with Nothing Now Clears S3, 000 Annually. — F. D. Yager of
Kenaston, Sask., states: "I came to this country in the spring, 1906, from
Chicago, with practically nothing. I took up a homestead which I proved up
and then bought three quarter-sections which I am now farming. It is all
under cultivation and I clear about $2,000 every year. I have put about
$3,500 worth of improvements on the land in the shape of buildings and
have one of the finest homes in the northwest. My land has doubled in value
in the last six years but it is not for sale. The climate in this part of Canada I
think is the healthiest in the world, and the winters getting milder every year."
An ex-Pennsylvanian Wants More Neighbours. — Writing in April, 1915,
(before he threshed his bountiful crop in the fall) wrote: "I have proved up
on one quarter and have eighty acres ready for crop and have four good horses,
and if I get a good crop this year will be out of debt. Where could you go to
do that in four years, starting without any money?
"I was raised in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, the garden spot of that
State, and this has just as good a chance to be as good. All we need is a lot
more farmers." Charles E. Reel, of Youngstown, Alta.
11(14 Wheal Averaged 59 Bushels and in 1915 Went 45 to the Acre. —
W. Mcllvide & Sons of Rumsey, Alberta, in a letter dated December 14,
1915, says: "In 1914 we had 59 bushels of wheat to the acre, and 87 bushels
of oats. In 1915 our wheat went 45 bushels to the acre, and oats went a
little over 90 bushels, just drilled in on stubble and harrowed once. This
was on the same. land that the wheat was raised on in 1914. In 1913 the
wheat went 43 bushels to the acre.
"We came here with one team of oxen, one team of horses, and machinery.
At that time we had six head of cattle, now we have 52 head of horses and
48 head of cattle besides what we have sold each year. We had 350 acres
in crop this year, and have 580 acres ready for crop next year.
"We value our holdings at $50,000. This has all been made right on the
land. Our wheat graded for 1913 to 1915 No. 1."
Never Had a Crop Failure.— August Pearson of Rumsey, Alberta, has
every reason to feel satisfied he moved to Western Canada. He says: "I
homesteaded here in 1909 and had nothing at all. Now I have a well improved
place, mostly broken up, and 11 head of horses. I am worth about $8,000.
.Since I came here I have not had a crop failure, and if this land is farmed right
a person is practically sure of a good crop every year. In 1913 my wheat
went 35 bushels per acre, in 1914 it went 43 bushels, and in 1915, 44
bushels. My oats also went 75 bushels to the acre."
Wheat Averaged 47 Bushels to the Acre.— A neighbour of Pearson's
writes as follows: "I came in hen; in 1903 and took a homestead and have
bought three quarters of land since then. I have been raising stock and
found this an A. 1 stock country. The last six years I have been growing grain
as well. I never had a crop failure, wheat has averaged 30 bushels per acre
and oats 80 bushels during this time. In 1915 my wheat went 47 bushels
and In 1914 a little over 30 bushels."
Started Farming with $32. — Ole Stensrud of Weldon, Sask., has proved
that by working and saving a man can start farming with a small capital.
He writes: "After filing on my homestead I had $32 cash. I now have a
half-section of land with 100 acres broken, 28 head cattle, 27 sheep, 9 horses
14 hogs, implements enough to do my work, and am on a fair financial
Wants Others to Reap Profits. — Valdemar Mortenson and his brothers
went to Western Canada in 1908, worked out as hired hands, and eventually
homesteaded at Delia, Alberta. Mr. Mortenson says:
"We have 245 acres under cultivation — all splendid wheat land — and are
increasing the cultivated area each year. We have 30 head of horses, full
equipment of implements and machinery, and do not owe a cent to anybody.
We had a surplus of about $1,000 last year and have nearly all of the 1914
crop of wheat and oats in our granary yet; worth from $2,500 to $3,000. We
have not speculated in anything, but earned our start by our own labour.
Had we embraced the very great opportunities our district affords for making
money through cattle and hog raising, we could have made a good many
thousand dollars in the 6 MS years we have been here with very little additional
effort, but as things are we have reason to be satisfied.
"When I look back over the narrow span of 6J-3 years which it has
taken to gain a comparative independence here, I realize that if the great
opportunities of this West of ours were more widely known, many would seek
homes here which they can never hope to gain elsewhere. Many people who
came here five or six years ago, with no other capital than their ability and
willingness to work, own their own homes and farms to-day, but those who
had some money have generally done better in proportion."
64}^ Bushels of Wheat to the Acre. — L. P. Zaczkowski of Spring Lake,
Alberta, got 643^ bushels of wheat per acre from 12 measured acres. His land
was manured and summer-fallowed, ploughing six inches deep. It was harrow-
ed over four times, seeded on the 6th of April, two and a half bushels per
Had 93 Bushels of Oats to the Acre. — "In 1915 I sowed 43 acres of
wheat from which I got 1,200 bushels of wheat, which is 27 bushels and 39
pounds from an acre. Had 17 acres of oats but threshed only 8 acres, from
which I got 650 bushels, an average of 93 bushels to the acre. Ten acres I
stacked for green feed. Jacob Goetz, (formerly of South Dakota) now of
Wheat 40 to 55 bushels to the acre. — A former American, now a resi-
dent of Golden Prairie, Sask , says:
"This year the crops were immense. In our locality wheat went from
40 to 55 bushels per acre, oats about 80 bushels on an average. We had
about 100 bushels of potatoes on about a quarter-acre of ground. Gardens
were fine all over. I picked out 12 potatoes that weighed 30 pounds and
this potato patch was cultivated only once. Last winter I turned the
horses out to rustle their living and they were in fine shape in the spring. But
I had a fine patch of corn this year and some corn-fattened hogs too. There
are schools in almost every district now. When I first came up here on almost
every half-section stood a little 12x14 shack, now almost everyone has real
modern houses and barns. Since I have been here there has been no snow
to slay until after Christmas. Horace Blake."
Large Yields Common in All Parts.— While on his recent visit to Travels,
Alberta, Canada, Robert Mathews obtained the following statements from
farmers in the Travers district of the yield of their crop for the past season:
I. H. Hooker, 82 acres wheat, 3,820 bu., 64 lbs. per bu.
1. I. Lee, 40 acres wheat stubble, 1,500 bu.; 40 acres wheat, summer
fallow, 2,530 bu. of wheat.
Peter Brandon, 164 acres wheat, 7,361 bu.
R. Marandi, 135 acres wheat, 6,920 bu.
Ole. Chrestoferson, 50 acres wheat, 2,647 bu.
Anifhus Gavett, 155 acres wheat, 6,642 bu.; 30 acres oats, 2,000 bu.
Robert Mathews. 46 acres wheat, 2,016 bu., machine measure.
A. H. Dahl, 50 acres wheat, 1,850 bu
D. Dunbar, 130 acres wheat, 5,925 bu.
Inguald Hoppy, 80 acres wheat, 2,800 bu., all stubble.
Louis Kragt, 80 acres wheat, 4,000 bu.
W. J. Pate, 26 acres wheat, 980 bu.
W. Roeniche, 15 acres wheat, 5,337 bu., 80 of this stubble. .
J. C. McKinnon, 50 acres wheat, 2,536 bu.
Gordon Swinehart, 30 acres wheat, 1,140 bu.
Allien Hanson, 85 acres u heat, 3.760 bu.
Elmer Hamm, HO acres wheat, 5,158 bu.; 90 acres oats, 6,550 bu.
John Larson, 80 acres wheat, 3,000 bu.; 30 acres oats, 2,000 bu.
John Hecklin, 37 acres wheat, 1,484 bu.
Wm. Hecklin, 100 acres wheat. 3,376 bu., stubble and breaking.
O. Salisbury, 50 acres wheat, 1,600 bu. on breaking.
The above statements here made in my presence this 9th day of December,
(Seal) O. Salisbury, Notary Public.
A Farm Home is easily beautified by trees and shrubs
AVERAGE YIELDS — Wheat, 26.3 Bushels; Oats, 47.7 Bushels.
A PROVINCE OF MUCH AGRICULTURAL STABILITY AND PROSPERITY
THE total wheat production of Manitoba in 1915 was 97 million bushels, from 3,660,930 acres, or an average yield of 26.3
bushels. The total yield of 1914 was 51,947,608 bushels.
Wheat yields averaging 40 bushels per acre for whole districts were common. Yields of 30 and 35 bushels per acre
for a district were reported from every section of the province. Individual yields of summer-fallow, potato land or breaking
yielded 60 to 70 bushels per acre.
Oats in several districts are said to have averaged 80 to 100 bushels per acre. The total oats crop for 1915 was 101 million
bushels and the average per acre 47.7 bushels.
The total barley crop was 35,281,095 bushels with an average yield of 34 bushels per acre.
SOME OF THE INDIVIDUAL YIELDS
Gladstone. — Wheat in this district averaged all the way from 25 to 50
bushels an acre, some running over 50. One field of new land is reported tc
have produced 70 bushels of wheat per acre and many entire quarter-sections
averaged 40 bushels. Fields averaging 50 bushels were not exceptional.
Fortler. — A farm here, which had been allowed to run down and get into
an unprofitable condition, passed into the hands of a new owner who worked
it on careful, scientific principles this year and had an average wheat crop on
the entire farm of 56 bushels an acre — one small field averaged 72.
Emerson. — Fifty-six and a half bushels to the acre was the average wheat
crop realized from a field on a farm here.
Winnipeg. — A field of Marquis wheat on the farm of the Manitoba Agri-
cultural College gave a yield of 63 bushels per acre.
Morris. — A 10-acre field of wheat at Morris, Manitoba, produced 630
bushels, while an oat field at the same place yielded 123 bushels per acre.
Brandon. — Numerous reports of 50 bushels of wheat per acre are to hand,
and some even higher are heard of.
Dauphin. — Four and one-fourth acres of wheat two miles from this town,
yielded 326 bushels of wheat, an average of 76.7 bushels per acre.
Manitou.— G. E. Davidson had 36 acres of breaking and 14 acres older
land. He got 2,186 bushels of wheat, over 43 bushels per acre.
Wm. Sharp, formerly Member of Parliament for Lisgar, Manitoba, had 80
acres of wheat on his farm near Manitou, Manitoba, that went 53 bushels.
One of the most remarkable yields in this old settled portion of Manitoba
was that of P. Scharf of Manitou, who threshed from 15 acres the phenomenal
yield of 73 bushels per acre.
Darlingford.— Walter Tichnor had 3,514 bushels off a 60-acre field, or
over 58 l A bushels per acre. Forty acres was breaking and 20 acres fallow.
Bowsman. — G. Smith had 55 bushels per acre of oats from 109 acres.
Beulah.— W. Saward, 38 bushels wheat from 167 acres and 70 bushels
oats from an 80 acre field.
Bridge Creek. — E. W. Nicholson got 40 bushels
wheat per acre from 380 acres.
Neepawa. — S. Benton. 30 acres average wheat from
310 acres and his oats went 66 bushels per acre.
Grandview. — J. Brothers' wheat went 35 bushels
per acre from a 75-acre field.
Brunkild. — J. Epler's wheat went 31 bushels per acre, his oats 50. W.
Coersch had 16 bushels per acre from 80 acres wheat. W. Kabitenzig had
35 bushels from 300 acres wheat; his oats went 45 bushels per acre.
Dunrea. — K. Dunlop had 36 bushels wheat per acre from 135 acres, and
40 bushels of oats as an average from 75 acres.
Sperling. — J. Grundler's wheat went 52 bushels per acre from an 80 acre
field, and his oats went 97 bushels per acre. J. L. Hamilton had 86 acres
of wheat that yielded well, while his oats averaged 45 bushels.
Shellmouth. — J. L. Bryant's 15 acres of wheat averaged 50 bushels.
R. W. Patterson's average on 175 acres was 30 bushels; his oats went 52 bushels.
Kennville.— W. Loat had 203 acres of wheat that averaged 43.50 bushels
per acre. His oats went 65 bushels.
Assissippi. — F. G. Richardson's average of wheat on 150 acres was 40
bushels per acre.
Gilbert Plains. — F. Morris had 232 acres of wheat, average 36 bushels;
oats, 110 acres, average 50 bushels. J. Gordon's wheat averaged 40 bushels
on 65 acres, and his oats 55 bushels on 90 acres.
Gregg. — Foster Olmsted had 45 bushels of wheat per acre; G. A. Edwards,
40 and A. McFarlane, 40.
FROM ONE YEAR'S CROP HE PAID FOR HIS LAND IN
An Illinois farmer owned a large quantity of land near Culross, Manitoba.
He decided to put one thousand acres of it under wheat. His own story
written to Mr. C. J. Broughton, Canadian Government Agent at Chicago is
"I had 1,000 acres in wheat near Culross, Manitoba. I threshed 34,000
bushels, being an average of 34 bushels to the acre. Last spring I sold my
foreman, Mr. F. L. Hill, 240 acres of land for $9,000 or $37.50 per acre. He
had saved up about $1,000 which he could buy seed with, and have the land
harrowed, drilled and harvested, and put in stock or shock.
"As a first payment I was to take all the crops raised. When he threshed he
had 8,300 bushels of wheat, which is worth in all $1.00 per bushel, thereby paying
for all the land that was in wheat and more too, there being
only 200 acres in crop. If the 240 acres had all been in
wheat he could have paid for it all and had money left."
That is a story that will need no corroboration in
this year when no matter which way you turn, you learn
of farmers who had even higher yields than these.
An Eastern Capitalist looking over his investments in Western Canada. He has here a field of wheat of 40oacres that gave him a yield of upwards
of 6o bushels per acre in 1915.
MANITOBA ENJOYS PROSPERITY BROUGHT ABOUT BY RICHNESS OF ITS SOIL
GRAIN* growing is and will probably remain
the most important feature in this prov-
ince and more especially in the Red River
valley proper. However, recent years have wit*
nessod a change. More and more stock is being
kept and the tendency is, undoubtedly, largely
towards smaller holdings, that is, diversified farm-
ing. Dairying and the production of beef, mutton
and pork are already prosecuted with profit in
many sections. Grass, roots and all classes of
forage crops can be grown successfully. Of the
cereals w heat is the staple, but oats, barley and
Max are also largely grown.
Climate. — Manitoba's climatic conditions are
uniform throughout. There is much sunshine the
year round. The summer is pleasant, warm, and
conducive to rapid and successful growth. The
long autumns are usually agreeable, ploughing
weather sometimes extending to the end of
The winters rarely last more than three or four
months, and because of the dry atmosphere, the
low temperature is not as much felt as in countries
with more moisture. The precipitation at
Minnedosa is 17.62 while that at Winnipeg it is 21.88. This may be
said to be normal. .
The crop season in Manitoba extends from April to October, inclusive.
Seeding frequently starts early in April, and threshing usually lasts through
October. The mean temperature for the period, April 1 to September 30, in
1914 was 55 degrees Fahrenheit. The mean temperature in October was only
34.40 Fahrenheit, but threshing can be done in cold weather as readily as in
warm, with no injurious effects. The total precipitation in the province was
smaller than usual — for the growing season 9.67 inches, but rain was well dis-
tributed: May 1.04 inches; June 2.34 inches; July 1.70 inches; August 3.56
inches, and September .68 inch. The average sunshine was 7.3 hours daily.
The mean temperature of the country is 32.7; January 5.2; July 66.1.
Available Homesteads.— There are about two million acres open for free
homesteading in the old portion of the province, where there is ample tree
growth to provide fuel and timber for a long time to come.
With conditions such as these, and with a grain crop that has brought to
every man, woman and child in the province upwards of 350 dollars, with land
that can be purchased from large land companies and from the railway com-
panies at remarkably low figures, some of them improved and others raw
prairie, any of them easily worth double, what more reasonable or pleasurable
existence could be imagined than life on one of these Manitoba farms.
And then, if you wish you may take advantage of the homesteading act
which gives you the privilege of taking up 160 acres of land as a free gift from the
Government, the only payment being the ten dollars entry fee.
Fuel. — There is an ample supply of wood along most of the rivers and in the
hills to the north, the wooded area to the east and also in the hills throughout
Southern Manitoba. Coal is not expensive. Many farm homes that a few
years ago were surrounded by but the open prairie have become beautified by
the planting of rows of trees and shrubs. Supplies of trees may be had from
the Government without any expense to the applicant.
Investment in Manitoba Farms. — Some idea of the growth of the
province may be obtained from the fact that the farms of Manitoba are worth
today approximately, $600,000,000. In 1911 they were worth $463,000,000.
Of the present six hundred millions the value of the farm lands now occupied
in the province is estimated at $425,000,000,
w hich is an increase of about $125,000,000 over
1911. The farm buildings in the province total
a value of $100,000,000, w hile agricultural imple-
ments in use in the province total a value of
about $35,000,000. The value of live stock is
placed at about $75,000,000.
Land Area in Manitoba.— The land area of
Manitoba Is about 250,000 square miles, which is
enough to give a square mile of land to 250,000
settlers, or sufficient to give a quarter-section to
three times that number. Government estimates
place the arable land still available in Manitoba
at 74,216,000 acres, which is sufficient to give
quarter-sections to 463,825 new settlers.
With land still available In 100-acre parcels for
over 463,000 agricultural settlers, It is possible
to Increase the total population of the province by
nearly two million people without crowding and to
Increase the agricultural production of the province
several hundred per cent.
Koot and Fodder Crops are of considerable value
to the Manitoba farmers. They grow in splendid
abundance. Every farmer can have a good supply
for winter's feed.
This picture was specially posed to show the height
of the oats. It is needless to say that the
yield in this field was exceedingly large.
recovery in many cases.
Harvest labour becomes a pleasure when the
yield is a 40 bushel to the acre wheat crop.
Pasture Grasses. — The wild or native grass of
Manitoba contains all the properties for fattening
cattle, but it is found that on lands that are
becoming more expensive all the time, it is best to
provide cultivated fodders. The experimental
stage is passed, and it can safely be said that all
kinds of tame grasses can be grown successfully.
Alfalfa yields abundantly. The same methods
of seeding and preparation are followed as in the
older alfalfa districts of the south. While the same
number of cuttings cannot always be relied upon,
as in some of the southern countries, where irriga-
tion is used, an excellent tonnage is always secured.
* Corn Can Be Grown. — Manitoba is now pro-
ducing considerable corn, chiefly for feeding
purposes. In some cases where the crop can be
matured into the dough stage, silos could be used,
and would be a profitable investment.
A report of the Department of Agriculture for
" It is unfortunate that the corn crop this year
must be reported a partial failure. The late spring
frost in June and the early fall frost in August were
sufficiently severe to cut back the crop beyond
The seriousness of this situation can be appreciated
when it is noted that the area planted to corn had increased from 30,430 acres
in 1914 to 52,713 acres in 1915. While the condition this year cannot fail
to create a disappointment among some farmers regarding corn, this crop is
so firmly established in many of the older districts that it will continue
to increase in popularity."
In connection with fodder crops comes in the question of:
Dairying. — It was not until the past few years that the attention was given
to this that the success to which it has now attained warranted it should have
had. The time of the farmer was entirely given to grain raising, and no
matter how rich a soil may be, a constant drainage of the constituents must
sooner or later tell. The farmers of Manitoba today do not dwell upon the
results of their grain crops. They have gone into cattle raising very extensively,
and there are to be found some of the best herds of the important breeds on the
continent. These are both beef and dairy. There are creameries established
in different parts of the province.
Manitoba produced during 1915 about 10,000,000 pounds of butter, which
had a value of $2,648,000.
The cheese production in this province for 1915 totalled about 726,725
pounds, valued at about $109,000. This shows an increase of about 234,000
pounds over 1910, the cheese production of that year being valued at $33,364.
The total cheese, butter and milk and cream production of the province
was worth $3,845,000.
Hogs. — The cost of raising pork in Manitoba is probably less than in any
other portion of the continent. There is a splendid market for all that can be
produced. The principal feed for finishing is barley, which by many is con-
sidered to be equally as good as corn.
Cattle. — The demand for cattle for years will be great, and there is no
better place to go into the business of raising cattle than in the Province of
Manitoba. They require no more care on the reasonably-priced lands of this
country than they do on the higher-priced lands of the south. They graze
out from the 1st of April until the middle of November, and during the winter
months are housed at night only. All breeds do well, and a choice is
only according to the notion of the breeder's
Poultry. — One of the largest poultry yards in
the Dominion, in fact the largest north of Chicago,
is near Winnipeg. It has been a paying proposition
from the start. Every farmer keeps his flocks of
turkeys, geese and chickens; or, should we have
said nearly every farmer's wife, for it seems to
have fallen to the lot of the farmer's wife, for here,
as in almost every farming district, it seems to
have fallen to her lot to look after this very
profitable part of the farmers' industries. It gives
her pleasure and affords her profit.
Fruit. — All the smaller fruits, such as straw-
berries, raspberries, gooseberries, and currants can
be grown successfully, and with a better flavour
and in larger quantities than in most other
places. They also grow wild in great abundance.
Crabapples can be grown almost anywhere. The
larger varieties of apples are grown, and excellent
yields are reported from points in Southern
Maiutoba. Commercially, it is not thought it
will pay as they require time and attention
that would be more profitably employed in
MANITOBA'S SOCIAL CONDITIONS MAKE FARM
The Social Conditions. The representative of the Dominion Govern-
ment, whose work is to seek settlers for these newer portions of the great
Dominion, is never so pleased as when he meets a prospective settler who asks
about the social conditions. That means he is talking to a prospect who has
wife and family and whose interest in life is beyond that of a mere existence.
Manitoba to this man can offer all that he may require. There are schools
for the children, graduated into those for
higher education for maturer years, until
it comes to the very highest branches of
education. A large portion of the expense
of these schools is paid out of a public
fund, established from the interest of the
money received from the sale of school
lands. These school lands comprise one-
eighteenth of all the land In the country.
Ladies' colleges for the finishing educa-
tion of the daughters are provided. There
are churches of all denominations.
Both Dominion and Provincial Govern-
ments have made ample provision for the
education of the farmer, in the establish-
ment of an experimental farm at Brandon
and the splendid Agricultural College at
Winnipeg. The best talent available is
employed, and the opportunities afforded
of obtaining a more thorough education in
agronomy are amongst the best possible.
In the matter of educational facilities the
new settler need have no fear that in Mani-
toba his children will be deprived of educa-
tional advantages; on the contrary, he will
find the schools of Manitoba thoroughly
up-to-date in equipment, the teachers com-
petent and the courses carefully selected
GREAT OPPORTUNITIES FOR
Western Canada requires a large number of
young men for employment on farms, and no
able-bodied young man, understanding ordinary
farm work, need hunt for a position, as steady
work may be easily obtained at $30 to $35
per month, with board and lodging, during the
spring, summer and fall seasons. This is an
opportunity to earn money while looking around
for a free homestead of 160 acres, which you
can secure upon the payment of a ten dollar
entry fee, and at the same time become
acquainted with farming conditions as they are
in Western Canada, and ultimately have a home
of your own surrounded by all agricultural and
The extent to which agri-
cultural instruction alongali
lines has been developed un-
der the direct supervision of
the Government is one of
the agreeable surprises that
await the newcomer. The
Government is constantly
on the alert to help the
farmer in practical ways
that mean dollars to him.
In many parts of the
province there is rural mail
delivery which, added to
Results Calculated to Water-Free Basis
the telephone system, places the farmer day by day and hour by hour in the
closest touch with his neighbour and the outside markets of the world.
Graded roads are to be found in all parts where the native or prairie road
fails to give satisfaction. Streams are often bridged with steel structures.
Markets are convenient and there is probably no state in the Union where the
farmer is so well served by the railways. Very few farmers, as one may
see by a glance at the map, are more than
ten to fifteen miles from a railway.
Elevators are at every station, and in
addition there are loading platforms, which
may be used by the farmer w ho wishes to
load his grain direct to the car, and avoid
the elevator charges.
With the exceptionally good roads, be-
fore spoken of, the farmer w ho wishes to
use an automobile, w ill find this one of the
added pleasures to his farm life in Mani-
toba. The sales made in the province dur-
ing 1915 were exceptionally large, and the
greatest number was made to farmers.
The Soil. — Speaking of the soil of Mani-
toba, Dr. Geo. M. Dawson, the eminent
geologist wrote some years ago:
"Of the alluvial prairie, the uniform fer-
tility of its soil cannot be exaggerated.
The surface, for a depth of two to four
feet, is a dark mould, composed of the same
material as the subsoil, but mingled with
much vegetable matter. Its dark colour is
no doubt due in part to the general accumu-
lation of the charred grasses left by the
prairie fires. The soil may be said to be
ready for the plough, and, in turning the
tough, thick prairie sod, the first year
a crop of potatoes may be put in, though
it is not sufficiently broken
Portage la Prairie
j Portage la Prairie
I Dauphin, Man .
jValley River, Man
; Valley River, Man
Virgin prairie soil— black, heavy clay loam
Virgin prairie soil — black, sandy loam . .
Prairie soil, cropped 25 years
Prairie soil, black loam, rather sandy
Prairie soil, black loam, rather sandy
Black sandy loam
Black sandy loam
Black sandy loam
up till it has been subjected
to a winter's frost. When
the sod has rotted, the soil
appears as a light, friable
mould, easily worked and
most favourable for agricul-
ture. The marly alluvium
underlying the vegetable
mould would, in most coun-
tries, be considered a soil
of the best quality, and the
fertility of the ground may,
therefore, be considered as
CANADA'S GREATEST GRAIN GROWING PROVINCE
A GRATIFYING feature of Saskatchewan's farm crop of 1915 was the general average yield of wheat over the whole Province,
excepting probably the district north of Moose Jaw to the Saskatchewan River, where yields of upwards of sixty bushels
per acre are reported. There was a universally heavy yield of oats in all districts, some going over 100 bushels to the
acre, while that of barley was equally good. The prices were such that many fanners realized sufficient to pay for their farms out
of the acre crop, and felt justified in purchasing land for further operations.
WHEAT.— Acreage, 6,884,874 acres; average yield, 25.2 bushels; total yield, 173,723,775 bushels.
OATS.— Acreage, 2,846,949 acres; average yield, 45.9 bushels; total yield, 130,910,048 bushels.
BARLEY.— Acreage, 272,299 acres; average yield, 33.2 bushels; total yield, 9,043,813 bushels.
FLAX.— Acreage, 539,674 acres; average yield, 11.2 bushels; total yield, 6,060,499 bushels.
Moose Jaw.— A farmer of this district, who had already harvested 25,000
bushels, completed early in November the threshing of 320 acres of wheat
which gave an average of 54 bushels per acre.
lyorkwood. — Mr. \V. D. Scott, Superintendent of Immigration, on his
farm near this place, had a yield of 45 bushels per acre, on a 23-acre field.
His entire crop of over 200 acres gave a yield of 35 bushels per acre. Yield of
oats was 58 bushels per acre.
Scott. — Reports from Scott Experimental station are that best crops in that
district yielded from 45 to 50 bushels of wheat per acre, with few fields yielding
below 30 bushels. Oats yielded well, but barley gave only medium returns.
At the Station, one field of wheat yielded over 52 bushels
per acre, while other fields averaged well.
Swirt Current.— From estimates made by farmers
the average wheat crop of the Swift Current district will
range from 25 to 30 bushels per acre. Some localities
claim averages of 35 bushels and higher.
Kindersley. — Ten acres of wheat land carefully meas-
ured out on an 10,000 acre farm here yielded 54.10 bushels or a fraction over
54 bushels to the acre.
Saskatoon. — The yields produced this year on the University Farm at
Saskatoon, while not phenomenal, are a very good index of what can be accom-
plished by proper farming methods without any exceptionally favorable con-
ditions. Wheat on the farm has yielded this year 47 bushels per acre on land
which was sown to corn last season. The lowest wheat yield recorded on
breaking is 23 bushels, and the highest 37 bushels per acre; the lowest wheat
yield on land that was "stubbled-in" is 17 bushels, and the highest 46 bushels
per acre; the lowest yield of oats on summer fallow is 77 bushels, and the
highest 94 bushels per acre; the lowest yield of barley
on summer fallow is 38 bushels, and the highest 51
bushels, while the lowest yield of peas on summer
fallow is 40 bushels.
The Dominion Lands agent at this place says that
from 107 different threshing outfits which form as
many different points in the province the yield of
wheat was 53 bushels per acre.
Water, grass and some shelter are requisite on a farm where cattle-raising is carried on, and there is plenty in Western Canada
SOME OF WESTERN CANADA'S FARM HOMES
Marklnrh. — The crops in this district have been completely threshed and
about 70 percent have been marketed, including as a total 390,000 bushels,
leaving about 200,000 remaining in the granaries.
Two hundred and ten cars of wheat, one car of barley, three of oats and
two of flax is the total number of cars shipped from here since September 1.
Shaunavon. — No w heatfield of this district has been recorded as averaging
less than 35 bushels to the acre while the majority run 40 to 47 and a very
large percentage of the crop grades N'o. 1 Northern. One farmer had an
average of 47 bushels of wheat from 204 acres and another secured an average
of 45 bushels from a field which has been "stubbled-in".
Morse. — Thirty-one bushels per acre from 70 acres sown on stubble and
56 bushels per acre from whole quarter-section on summer fallow are among
the yields recorded in this district.
Sovereign. — The certified yield on the farm of D. E. Johnston, after careful
measurement shows wheat returns — 51 acres summer fallow, 58 bushels per
acre; 78 acres summer fallow, 63 bushels per acre; 34 acres summer fallow,
70 bushels per acre: 95 acres seeded on flax stubble, 55 bushels per acre; 128
acres on wheat stubble, 48 bushels per acre; 130 acres on fall ploughing, 40
bushels per acre; and 71 acres in flax yielded 30 bushels per acre.
Humboldt. — Threshing is revealing good yields throughout Humboldt
district. A field of 100 acres Marquis wheat yielded 4,000 bushels and graded
No. 1 Northern.
Kennedy. — Wheat in this district has averaged 32 bushels per acre and the
grade was high.
Alsask. — Wheat, fine sample, yielding all the way from 25 to 60 bushels
Melfort. — Wheat averaged 30 bushels to the acre, and showed a high
Lloydminster. — Wheat in some places went 45 bushels, and oats 75
bushels to the acre. The average for wheat will be about 25 bushels to the acre.
Elrose. — A half-section of wheat threshed here showed a total yield of
16.640 bushels, which is an average of 52 bushels per acre.
Indian Head. — The average per acre of wheat in summer fallow in this
district was 30 bushels and for stubble 18 bushels of wheat per acre.
Eskbank.— W. P. McLachlan had 40 bushels of wheat.
Darmody. — John Ask had 42 bushels of wheat.
Gilroy. — Chas. Lundy had 40 bushels of wheat.
Nokomis. — J. R. Durgan harvested 51 bushels of wheat, A. G. McFarlane
had 48. W. J. Casterton had 47 bushels of wheat.
Bremen. — G. Hoffman had 62 bushels of wheat and 114 bushels of oats.
Domremy. — J. Georges had 62 bushels of wheat.
Asqulth. — T. Peat had 41 bushels of wheat.
Pope. — Wm. Kerr had 62 bushels of wheat, S. Laird had 55.
Semans. — H. W. A. Johnston had 41 \'i bushels of wheat per acre, T.
Hawley had 47 bushels of wheat, J. G. McGouch had 49J-4 bushels of wheat.
Toung. — W. C. Teneycke had 50 bushels of wheat per acre, W. Mason
and R. Cross each had 45 bushels per acre.
Gerald. — J. L. Salkeld had 52 bushels of wheat per acre, Chas. Jackson
had 48, and W. H. Tebb had 40.
Zelma. — John McPherson had 44 bushels of wheat, Jas. Byers had 41.
and V. P. Byan had 85 bushels of oats per acre.
Unity. — C. W. Benjamin had 50 bushels of wheat and 85 bushels of oats
per acre. George Sim had 52 bushels of wheat, C. E. Michael and W. J. Gra-
ham each had 100 bushels of oats. A. G. Young had 50 bushels of wheat and
100 bushels of oats.
Leney. — Robert Carr had 57 bushels of wheat, Frank Brown had 53,
R. H. Weir had 48.
Venn. — T. E. Evjen had 44H bushels of wheat, Tingey Bros, had 45
bushels of wheat.
An hydale. — A. Dalrymple and J. Morrison each had 40 bushels of wheat.
Roletta. — P. G. Alger had 49 bushels of wheat and 100 bushels of oats,
I. Wilson had 49 bushels of w heat and 100 bushels of oats.
Battleford. — A. E. Flack from 40 acres harvested 52 bushels of wheat
per acre, M. Thebault had 45 bushels per acre.
Bresnahar, J. S._.
Shortreed, F. R...
Firnquist, J. P.-..
Lipsit, E. A
Moore, J. C
Strutt, J. J
Carruthers, J. G..
Then too. we have Seager Wheeler at Rosthern who, apart from once more
carrying off the World's Championship at Denver for wheat, was able to grow
eighty bushels to the acre of Kitchener wheat and forty-six bushels per acre of
Marquis in spite of the fact that the yield was reduced by June frosts, and
that that district this year only had some three inches of rainfall.
The quality of the grain crop of Saskatchewan is almost as satisfactory as
the yield, as the percentage grading No. 1 Northern is high.
On the whole the year has had very satisfactory results for agriculturists.
Potatoes show an average yield per acre of 140 bushels with a total acreage
of 30,796. Other field roots with a total of 9,680 acres give 212 bushels as an
average yield per acre.
MIXED FARMING SUCCESSFUL
All Lines of Farming
Pay Equally as Well
as Wheat Growing
A very good prairie view taken
in Western Canada
LIVE STOCK. — With the
exception of hogs, there
j is an increase in live
stock returns. It would
not have been a matter for sur-
prise if live stock had remained
practically stationary during
1915 owing to the extra atten-
tion paid to grain, but it is sat-
isfactory to note that there is
an increase, even if it is not
large. In some districts there
is an increase of 7 per cent in
milch cows, and a total increase
for the province of 6 per cent
over last year. Hogs show a
decrease, but hogs so easily rise
or fall in numbers that they reflect the state of the market much more
quickly than any other branch of the live stock industry. Horses have held
their own in numbers, although the market has not been encouraging. A good
omen is the increase in the number of sheep. Sheep will play an important
part in checking weeds, and we need their aid. Below is given a comparative
table showing the totals of live stock for the years 1914 and 1915.
There is nothing very extraordinary about this scene. It is a usual one on farms in
Western Canada. Farmers are making use of the money cleared from their great
fields of grain in 1913 to purchase cattle and go more into mixed farming.
Dairying. — There is a competent dairy branch connected with the Depart-
ment of Agriculture. With the establishment and maintenance of creameries
throughout the province, there is an increasing interest in this industry, with
commensurate profits to the farmer. The climate favours winter dairying.
The many native fodder plants help materially, and alfalfa can be so easily
grown that it Is promoting a rapid increase in the production, which will
shortly do away with the imported article, which up to the past few years has
been very large. The increase in the number of creameries is not the means
by which success is measured, but rather the volume of business done, not
only in the individual creamery but the total volume for the province.
Co-operative creameries under Government supervision, in five summer
months of 1915, produced 1,640,000 lbs. butter, which is an increase of
over 50 per cent on same period of 1914 and more than double that of same
period of 1913. The Dairy Commission, in reporting on this great increase,
says that, although the industry is developing rapidly, its possibilities are
practically unlimited and a market for five times the butter now being produced
can be found readily. The price of creamery butter has been advancing
steadily for several years and is now so high as to stimulate western farmers
to greater production. Saskatchewan farmers are urged to use the surplus
from this year's crops to increase their dairy herds and facilities.
Sheep. — The farmers In Saskatchewan are now going extensively into
sheep raising and the Provinicial Government is assisting them to secure
the best price for fleeces, by handling the wool and selling it en-bloc in the
best competitive market. In 1915 the market price was 25 to 27 cents a
Poultry .—The Provincial Government in order to encourage the raising of
poultry Is handling, for the farmers, the birds in the fall. A special instruction
train goes through the country and demonstrates the correct method of kill-
ing and dressing, collects the birds for sale and disposes of them in the best
market, usually obtaining a few cents more a pound for the farmer than if
sold in the nearest local market.
Sheep raising one of the profit-
able branches of farming
Prairie Grasses. — Generally
areof two classes, viz.: "Prairie
wool" and "slough" or "mead-
Domestic Hay. — Timothy
occupies the greatest acreage.
Rye and brome grasses are
sown to a lesser extent. Clover,
alsike, alfalfa and corn are re-
ported in limited areas.
Corn and Alfalfa.— A sam-
ple of Northwestern Dent corn
8 feet 10 inches high from a
300-acre irrigated field on a
farm near Prussia, Saskatch-
ewan, is splendid evidence of the suitability of the climate and soil to corn
raising when water at the proper time is assured through irrigation. The
same farm has 1,000 acres of alfalfa. Between 30 and 40 varieties of corn
recently harvested on the University farm at Saskatoon averaged 8 to 13
tons per acre.
Western Canada requires for this season's farming operations
30,000 additional labourers. Wages S30 to $40 per month with board
and lodging. This presents an excellent opportunity for every
ambitious young man to get a start, eventually owning a farm of
his own, and be independent for life. Secure information from
the nearest Canadian Government agent as to what district you
should go to and learn of the low railway rates available.
Roots and Vegetables. — Potatoes easily occupy the most important place
among the root crops, representing at least 70 per cent of the total acreage
Turnips and mangels are grown to some extent for feed. Sugar beets have
proved very successful in some parts of the province. Practically all the
smaller garden vegetables are grown, and excellent results are obtained.
Tree Planting. — To meet the lack of natural protection against wind and
snow, the Dominion Government, since 1901, has distributed trees for
planting in the Prairie Provinces. In many cases a large advance in farm
values has resulted. These trees are raised at the Forestry Nursery Stations
at Indian, Head and Saskatoon, in Saskatchewan, and are distributed to
applicants under defined conditions with regard to cultivation.
Fruit Growing. — The smaller bush fruits grow in profusion all through
the province, and an excellent quality is obtained. Larger fruits are in the
experimental stage as yet. A good variety of early apples has been produced
on the Experimental Farm at Indian Head. The market for larger fruits is
still supplied by the Ontario and British Columbia fruit lands.
Fuel and Water. — The brown coal deposits in southern Saskatchewan are
the sole sources of fuel in the vast territory between the head of the great lakes
and the Rocky Mountains. In character they are true lignite of cretaceous
age. The woody structure is very marked. As to quantity, there are not
millions but billions of tons east and west of the Souris River. Lignites occur
abundantly in the Estevan and the Souris River field. Operations are carried
on by several mining companies. A large field is being opened up by
branches of C.N.R. and C.P.R. near Wood mountain in the south, and
promising reports of discoveries come from west of Saskatoon. A colliery is
operated 40 miles south of Moose Jaw.
Water is plentiful everywhere and in most districts it is only necessary to
sink a shallow well to get a plentiful supply.
SASKATCHEWAN'S SOIL AND CLIMATE THE SECRET OF ITS BIG YIELDS
An Authenticated Yield.— It is not always possible to get authenticated
statements of tjrain yields, as in many eases there are no faeilities for making
an accurate measurement of land and products. Below are figures from a farm
at Sovereign, Saskatchewan, where land and yields were carefully measured,
and exact results can be quoted. They speak for themselves:
51 acres w heat on summer fallow - 57 43
78i 2 acres wheat on summer fallow 62 48
34 acres wheat on summer fallow _ 69 87
951 s acres w heat seeded on Max stubble 53 83
128 acres seeded on wheat stubble — 48 09
130 acres seeded on fall plowing and w heat stubble -- 40 04
71 acres flax — - - 30 08
25 acres barley -- - -■- 69
51acresoats -- -- --- 80
All wheat was the Marquis variety. Average yield of wheat on summer
fallow, 62 . 45 bushels per acre. Total crop over 34,000 bushels.
His Story In a Nutshell.—
"You ask me how I started farming in Saskatchewan; here Is the story in a
••I left the United States with my wife and three boysin March, 1907, having
S2.000 cash, 10 horses, 3 cows and 3 cars of settler's effects.
' We homesteaded 640 acres of land 150 miles southwest of Saskatoon,
about 12 miles from the present Biggar-Calgary line of the G. T. P. railroad.
"Boys and self now have 1,600 acres of land; 524 acres in crop and enough
prepared land now to make over 1.000 acres of crop in spring of 1915.
"I had an offer of $35.00 an acre as it stood, but refused, being confident
that this land "will be worth $50.00 per acre in two years.
"We have a full set of machinery, binders, drills. 45-horsepower engine plow s
and separators. Summer fallow looks like 40 to 45 bushel crop, and never
better prospects for flax.
"It is a splendid country for the rich and poor to get richer. Yours truly,
Chas. F. Taylor & Sons, Springwater, Sask."
Cost of Improving Land. — The following is an estimate of the
cost of farm development, where it is done by contract work. Breaking,
3 inches deep, per acre, $3 to $5; harrowing, each operation, per acre, 35c;
discing 3 times, per acre, $1.50; seeding, not including seed, per acre, 60c. ;
seed, per bushel, market price; fencing per mile, 3 wires, $100 to $125; hauling
grain from nearest station to land, per mile, per bus., %f.\ treating grain with
bluestone or formalin, per bus., 3c. ; boring wells, using steel casings, per ft.,
$2.25 to $6; boring wells, using galvanized casings, per ft., $2 to $2.75; cost
of good work horse, $150 to $200; cost of milch cow, $65; cost of sow for
breeding, $10. Coal varies with locality from 50c. per ton at mine, to $6 per
ton delivered at shipping point. A 6-roomed house, $700; a stable to accom-
modate 8 horses, $300; implement shed, $100; granary for 2,000 bus., $100.
Profit Per 100 Acres by Contract Work. — The following estimate is
regarded as fair by practical men. It shows the cost and profit per acre on
acropof wheat of 100 acres: Preparing the land or seeding, $4.00; drilling,
20c.; harvesting and stocking, 90c; threshing and delivering crop of 22.50
bushels per acre, (the average yield) at 12c per bushel, $2.70 per acre entire
cost of wheat crop per acre delivered to the elevator, $7.80; add interest, 8
percent on land, at $20 per acre, $1.60; taxes (land, school and road) per
acre, about 20c. ; total cost per acre, $9.60; receipts from sale of 22.50 bushels
of wneat at 95c. per bushel, $21.37. Net profit per acre, $11.77. Profit on
100 acres, $1,177.00, a deduction must be made to allow for cost of seed
which varies according to variety.
Buying on Half-Crop Payments. — A farm is sometimes acquired at an
agreed price on the following terms: The purchaser does all the work on the
land, supplying seed, paying for twine and threshing, delivers one-half the
crop to the elevator for the owner, who credits the amount received on
the purchase price of the land.
Education. — Schools are sustained by provincial aid and local rates.
Except in special cases where qualified teachers cannot be obtained, the teacher
must hold a certificate of qualification granted by the Department of Educa-
tion. The university, located at Saskatoon, is supported and controlled by
the province, a department of which is a college of agriculture with some
of Canada's best educators and agricultural specialists on the faculty. No-
where do the agricultural authorities give greater attention to welfare and
education of the farmer than in the newer districts of this province. The
number of schools in 1903 was 606; in 1913 there were 3,226, or only 500
schools short of one new school for every day of the w hole ten years, excluding
Sundays. In addition to the university there are seventeen high schools.
Land Value Taxation. — Saskatchewan's taxation assessments trend
towards the straight land tax. The municipal law does not lend itself to the
penalising of a man's thrift by making him pay taxes on his personal property
his herds, his barns or his house. The land alone is assessed at its value, w ith-
out regard of its improvement. The credit of the municipality is the security
on the land itself.
The laws are such that no one need lose his land for non-payment of taxes
until full and ample notice has been given and a generous period of time allowed
to redeem. There is no War Ta\ on Land.
The Available Homesteads are principally in the northern portion of
central Saskatchew an which is watered east and west by the main Saskatchew an
river and by its chief branch, the North Saskatchewan. The surface generally
is rolling prairie interspersed with wooded bluffs of poplar, spruce and pine,
alternating with intruding portions of the great plain from the south. In
soil and climate central Saskatchewan is well adapted to the raising of cattle,
also wheat and other grains. North of tow nship 30 there is unlimited grazing
land, horses, cattle and sheep feeding in the open most of the year. There
is the necessary shelter when extreme cold weather sets in, and water is plentiful.
Sheep do well. Many farmers have from 50 to 100 sheep and lambs. The
district also possesses everything required for the growing of crops and there
are satisfactory yields of all the smaller grains. The homesteader may add to
his holdings by purchasing adjoining land from the Canadian Pacific Railway,
Canadian Northern and other corporations. These unimproved lands range
from $15 an acre upwards.
Available Farm Land. — There are but few homesteads available in south-
eastern Saskatchewan. The land is occupied by an excellent class of farmers,
and values range from $15 per acre to $25 for unimproved prairie, and from
$30 to $50 per acre for improved farms. In the neighbourhood of Moose Jaw
mixed farming and grain raising are carried on with success. North and
northwest, towards the Saskatchewan, are large settlements; but to the south
and southwest is a tract of land available for homesteading.
Southeastern Saskatchewan includes that section between Manitoba on the
east and the third meridian on the west, extending some distance north of
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It has more rainfall than
portions farther west and less wood than the portion lying north. In character
and productiveness of soil, southeastern Saskatchewan is a continuation of
Manitoba, but contains more prairie area.
Available Homesteads. — Northern Saskatchewan has not yet been opened
to any extent for settlement. There are approximately 80 million acres
beyond the railway at Prince Albert which time, zeal, and railway enterprise
will eventually make accessible. Furs, forest wealth, and fisheries are rec-
ognized as a national asset, but thousands of acres of fertile land lie beyond
the existing lines of railway — awaiting development. Northern Saskatchewan
has natural resources sufficient to maintain a population equal to that of any-
European country in corresponding latitude.
In reviewing the soils of Saskatchewan examined during a period of twenty
years, taking those representing large areas and selected from districts at
considerable distance apart, covering nearly the entire province, Prof.
Shutt, Dominion Chemist says: "It is worthy of remark that the larger
number of the soils examined, and more particularly those in the noted wheat
growing districts, have been found to be abundantly supplied with humus-
forming material and nitrogen. They possess abundant stores of plant food,
and are of high fertility."
In some parts, especially in the districts that are partly wooded with scrub
poplar, etc., the soil is a grayish black loam of a decidedly clayey nature.
The nitrogen in the water free soil is almost half of one per cent with notable
amounts of potash and lime, and an average phosphoric acid content.
In other parts the description of soils by the same authority, gives them as
black, sandy loams of the true prairie type, rich in vegetable matter and
nitrogen, with excellent percentages of phosphoric acid and potash.
Climate. — In summer the temperature often rises to 100 degrees. Winters
are cold, lasting from end of November to middle or end of March. The
atmosphere is clear and dry owing to the altitude, 1,500 to 3,000 feet.
Snowfall is light. Bright sunshine is the rule.
Latitude. — The British Isles lie in the same latitude as the province of
Saskatchewan. Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, the greater part of
Germany and about half of Russia, are as far north as Regina. Edinburgh is
farther north than any of the settled parts of Saskatchewan. St. Petersburg,
Russia, and Christiana, Norway, are in the same northern latitude as the
northern boundary of Saskatchewan.
Telephones. — An important adjunct to farm life is the rural telephone.
With these Saskatchewan is well provided.
Government reports on Saskatchewan telephones show the wire miles of
long distance system have increased from 3,280 in 1910 to 15,760 in 1915, the
exchanges from 20 to 99, toll offices from 100 to 311. Rural lines are
rapidly being constructed as needed, and receive assistance from the Provin-
O S ij \jjP D „ Q 1 '
Farm Buildings Similar to these May be Found in all Parts of Alberta
100,000,000 ACRES OF ARABLE LAND
AVERAGE WHEAT 36.16 BUSHELS — OATS 57.33.
A Vast Plateau 2,000 to 3,000 Feet Above Sea Level
THERE probably never was in the history of any country covering such a large area, with an acreage
of less than 4 million acres, such an abundant yield recorded. Below are given reports from a number
of districts of the province from two to three hundred miles apart, showing phenomenal yields of wheat
upwards of 70 bushels per acre. Of course there have been smaller yields than those reported, but when the
general average of 36.16 bushels of wheat per acre is considered, it is quite evident that the small yield has
been the exception rather than the rule. It is not in wheat alone that these immense yields have been given,
but oats have gone 130 bushels to the acre. Hardly a district shows a wheat average of under 30 bushels.
It must be apparent, that if one farmer in a locality can get 50 bushels
an acre of wheat, other farmers with the same soil, climate and conditions,
should be able to get the same yields if they are equally good agriculturists.
In the long run it comes down pretty much to the man's own ability. Be-
low will be found some of the yields.
Reid Hill. — Mr. O. L. Wooters had a yield of 57 bushels to the acre from
his summer fallow; Mr. James Dann from 60 acres of stubble got 2,382
bushels of Red Fife, an average of 48 bushels to the acre.
In conversation with Mr. Paul Norton, who is doing a lot of threshing
in the Reid Hill district, he says that of eight places on which he threshed,
the yields were from 40 to 57 bushels per acre.
Alston. — Mr T. Lawrence, had a yield of 60 bushels to the acre from
40 acres of summer fallow.
High River. — Mr. Peter Peterson's wheat went 55 bushels to the acre.
Mr. A. C. Middleton had 47 bushels of wheat to the acre off fall ploughing.
Fred Mensinger's summer fallow yielded him 66 bushels of wheat to the
acre. W. Myers and Joe Spanke, from breaking got 56 bushels and 51
bushels respectively. Oats, S. E. Taylor had 105 and J. W. Johnston 134
Tom Margetts, had 25 acres of oats from which he obtained 3,350 bushels,
average 134 bushels per acre. From the balance of his crop, 175 acres, he
garnered 21,875 bushels, which made an average of 125 bushels to the acre.
Woolchester district threshed 54 bushels an acre from 36 acres of wheat.
Forty-nine acres wheat averaged 58 bushels per acre; 200 acres wheat part
of which was on stubble, yielded 8,600 bushels; 230 acres yielded 9,200
Bassano. -Robert Comer, threshed 70 acres of wheat on irrigated land
which yielded an average of 54 bushels to the acre. Five acres of wheat
grown on land that was planted to potatoes a year ago yielded an average
of 69 bushels per
acre. Mr. Rolism
had 100 bushels
of oats per acre
from a large field.
Grassy Lake. — Over 20,000 bushels of wheat from about 570 acres is the
crop of a local farmer here. Yield was over 35 bushels of wheat per acre.
There is also reported a yield of 50 bushels per acre from 56 acres; 6,000 bushels
from 260 acres; 10,000 bushels from 300 acres; 5,100 bushels from 130 acres;
5,100 bushels from 100 acres.
Gus Schmidt had 100 bushels of oats per acre, Ed Johnson 95, and Walter
Gwilliam had 39y 3 bushels of wheat from 130 acres.
Burdett, Alta. — A farmer of this neighbourhood threshed an average of
53 bushels an acre from 640 acres of wheat. The lowest yield recorded here
was 28 bushels per acre of wheat. Gideon Olson had 56 bushels per acre;
Lars Johnson 67 bushels; Mr. Elford got 69}^ bushels from a 60-acre field.
Sherburn. — Hart Bros, had 51 bushels of wheat per acre from 100 acres.
Brant, Alta. — Wheat 65 bushels to the acre and oats 135 bushels, grading
No. 1 throughout and representing the crop, not of a hand-picked area but
of whole section of land, are reported.
Dan Richmond had 160 acres, summer fallow, and obtained 10,240 bushels
of No. 1 Marquis wheat. On an adjoining quarter section which was fall
ploughed, he obtained 8,320 bushels. The average was 52 bushels.
What appears to be an incredible yield of wheat, is reported from the
farm of Messrs. Bruer and Grieves. The field consisted of 43 acres of Marquis
wheat and yielded 72 bushels per acre.
Mr. Ernest Hanson had an average yield of 60 bushels per acre.
Monarch, Alta. — Yield of wheat reported by threshers indicated that the
majority of the fields ran about 50 bushels an acre. Oats also gave very
heavy yields, one field reaching 138 bushels to the acre. One farmer, who
had 1,000 acres under grain crop, had an average of 57 bushels, 45 lbs., of
wheat, grading No. 1, per acre from a 160-acre field.
B. Nykoff had 112 bushels per acre from a 55-acre field of oats. He also
had 54 bushels of wheat per acre; N. Nykoff had 50 bushels from an 80-acre
field, while N. H. MelchelPs crop ranged from 34 to 48 bushels per acre.
Medicine Hat. — Two hundred thousand bushels of wheat were threshed
from a 4,000-acre field near here. Forty-five bushels to the acre is also
ALBERTA'S AVERAGE YIELD OF WHEAT PER ACRE WAS 36.16 BUSHELS.
Cr*lgm>le.— Two thousand nine hundred and twelve bushels of wheat
was the crop taken ofT a 60-acre Held on Captain R. B. Eaton's farm, in the
Craigm\le district. Although this land has been cropped for six years out
of the past seven, the yield is a little over 48 1 L . bushels per acre, grading No. 1.
Vermilion.— Mr. D. B. Winters and Sons, of Claysmore. threshed 55
acres of wheat that produced 3,400 bushels, or 63 bushels to the acre; oats
averaged 112 bushels per acre.
Trochu.— Mr Telesbore Lemey of Trochu. threshed 2.500 bushels of
wheat on 45 acres measured land, with affidavits available. This works
out an average of 55?.,' bushels per acre, grading Xo. 1.
MlUn.- Mr J. Cope of Munson. threshed a
20-acre field of summer-fallowed land, yielding 58
bushels per acre.
Glefchen.— Big yields are not confined to small
acreage. Mr. F. Corbel] of the Gleichen district
threshed 17,000 bushels of wheat frdm 290 acres,
yielding a little better than 58 bushels per acre.
Field of oats yielded over 104 bushels per acre.
Queenstown.— Mr. Walter Hoerle of Queenstown
threshed 80 acres of Red Fife that averaged 51
bushels, and 4) 2 measured acres of Marquis wheat
which yielded 83H bushels per acre. Land and
Nanton. — J. H. Garbutt of Nanton, threshed 80
acres of Marquis wheat, which averaged 52 bushels per acre.
W. H. Reed of Nanton, threshed 90 bushels of oats per acre.
J. R. Eckert had 150 acres of wheat on stubble disced last fall and drilled
last spring, that averaged 40 bushels.
Lethbridge.— The Provincial Jail Farm at Lethbridge, threshed 3.918
bushels of Marquis wheat from 75?.» acres, an average yield of 51.72 bushels
per acre. Included in the above was one field of 24.72 acres which yielded
1,503 bushels, or an average yield of 60.8 bushels per acre.
Prospy. — Mr. A. G. Kendall of Prospy district. Township 7, Range 8,
reports having threshed three measured acres which yielded 8IJ4 bushels per
acre, also a field of 43 acres, which averaged 53 li bushels wheat per acre.
In the same district Mr. T. N. Sprinkle reports 58 bushels per acre.
Nobleford. — At Nobleford Mr. Noble reports having threshed a 90-acre
field of oats which averaged 111 bushels and 23 pounds to the acre. His
summer-fallow averaged 120 bushels of oats. A yield of wheat is reported
from here as going 49 bushels and 40 pounds from a 63-acre field.
Baron. — In the
Baron district, Arie
Versluis received 54
bushels per acre of
No. 1 from a 1 60-acre
Mr. FinKe, in the
same district, received
70 bushels per acre
from a measured 8-
acre field. He also
received 120 bushels
of oats per acre from
85 acres, and 85 bush-
els per acre of barley
from a 60-acre field.
Carmangay. — Mr.
J. W. Rosenberger
threshed 5.100 bush-
els wheat from 99
Brooks. — A field
of Marquis wheat, on
the estate of the Duke
of Sutherland gave
69 bushels per acre.
This field had special
attention in the mat-
ter of cultivation, but
other land on the
same farm with only
averaged 50 bushels
of wheat per acre. Another farmer threshed from 160 acres 9,467 bushels
of wheat, an average of 59 bushels per acre. On a "stubbled-in" field,
an average of 30 bushels per acre was the return from a 400-acre field. A
farmer with 900 acres had an average of 40 bushels of wheat, another had
42 bushels of wheat and 84 bushels of oats. A thresher here says the lowest
he threshed in 1915 was 37 bushels per acre.
Plncher Creek. — A claim is made that a 100-acre field of spring wheat
produced 62.000 bushels and another field of 200 acres yielded 1 1 .000 bushels.
On one farm wheat went slightly better than 60 bushels per acre; one 35-
acre plot of oats made a record of 120 bushels.
TAXATION IN CANADA
The Additional War Revenue
required in Canada is raised by
increase in Customs tariff, taxation
of banks, loan companies, a tax
on railway and steamship tickets,
telegrams, postal matter, patent
medicines and proprietary articles,
AND NOT ONE CENT OF WAR
TAX is levied on lands.
Barley is one of the best paying crops in Western Canada. It is largely grown for feed, taking
the place of corn as a fattening product.
Sterling. — A farmer here says he had 20.000 bushels of wheat from 500
acres. This crop was sold early for ff 16,400, a gross return of *32. 80 per acre.
Magrath. — Eleven thousand bushels of oats from a 100-acre field is
reported. The farmer who grew these has taken a total of $70 per acre from
his land in two years. Bert Ackeberg had 66 bushels wheat per acre.
Three Hills. — A field of Marquis wheat by actual weight and measurement
yielded 63 bushels 40 pounds per acre.
Milk Kiver. Alberta.— Twenty acres here yielded an average of 62H
bushels of wheat to the acre. This land had formerly had a crop of peas and
was in a high state of cultivation.
From a " volunteer" crop a field of 100 acres yielded
2,300 bushels of wheat, an average of 23 bushels per
acre. Wheat sown on cultivated land averaged 41
bushels per acre.
New Dayton. — A farmer here got an average of 30
bushels per acre from an 800-acre field of spring wheat.
Tofield.— Threshing indicates that the average
wheat yield of the district was 35 bushels per
acre; oats, 70.
Provost. — Wheat yielded 30 bushels per acre, oats
70. barley 60.
Lacombe. — Areas and yields carefully measured,
leaving no latitude for crops this year. Areas and
yields carefully measured, leaving no latitude for
guess-work, show wheat crops running as high as 72 bushels per acre. The
yields of grain, as reported by threshers in all parts of the country, are remark-
ably high, and probably constitute record crops for the West. Returns of
over one hundred bushels of oats to the acre are frequently reported, and
yields of wheat of 50, 60, and even 70 bushels to the acre have been secured.
Aldersen.— In the Aldersen district, Mr. Potter received 67 bushels of
wheat to the acre from 23 acres, and 40 acres that yielded 62 bushels.
Lemsford.— B. R. Talbot, 74 bushels per acre of wheat from 31 acres.
Calgary.— Wm. Miller says: "My oats run from 65 to 85 bushels per
acre, barley from 44 to 60 bushels, and spring wheat 35 bushels. Once or
twice the wheat got a little touch of frost but not enough to hurt.
"As to climate I might say in a word: You cannot beat it, take it all year
round. We have cold snaps in winter, but as a rule they do not last long,
and as to being healthy, I have lived around here 33 years now and I have
never had a doctor prescribe for me. I got married 24 years ago and my
wife and I have raised a fine healthy family of nine sons and two daughters,
and why should we
not feel content in
such a country as this
where the sun shines
almost 365 days a
year? My wife and I
are young and strong,
enjoying the best of
health and glad that
our paths led us to
this happy land."
Foremost. — A
farmer at Foremost,
Alberta, had a yield
of wheat which he
expected would yield
35 bushels per acre,
but when threshed,
this field actually
yielded 51 bushels
per acre. Yields of
40, 50 and even 60
bushels per acre of
wheat are reported
from many districts.
Vulcan. — Wheat
yields reported here
include 61 bushels
per acre on summer
fallow, 39 on stubble
and 47 on spring
ploughing; oats ran
to 110 bushels. Se\enty-eight acres of Marquis wheat produced 4,688 bushels,
an average of a little over 60 bushels an acre. On the same farm, oats w hich
had been sow n on stubble yielded 100 bushels per acre. One hundred and
forty acres of wheat which had been "stubbled in" averaged 53 M bushels per
acre; 60 acres of breaking averaged 60'A bushels per acre; a 75-acre field,
partly summer fallow and partly fall ploughing, averaged 45 bushels to the
acre; other crops show averages of 50, 51 and 57 bushels per acre.
Millet.— One farmer averaged 35 to 38 bushels per acre with his wheat.
Keoma.— Among the yields at Keoma, Alta.. 20 acres of Marquis wheat
is reported to have averaged 70 bushels, 42 acres making 59, and another
20 acres averaged 70 and a 10-acre field 63 bushels per acre.
RICHNESS OF ALBERTA'S SOIL TOLD IN CROP RETURNS
Hot law. — An 80-aore field of wheat near Retlaw, Alta., averaged 48
bushels per acre, a 75-aere field 43 bushels and a 70-acre field 40 bushels.
J. Joslin, near here, threshed 60 bushels No. 1 hard, from 24 acres, and 41
bushels to the acre from 140 acres.
Tabor. — A fanner here, formerly from Spokane, reports securing 15,000
bushels of wheat from a half-section of land, or an average of over
46 bushels per acre. Another farmer got 60 bushels of wheat per acre, and
another 50 bushels spring rye and 97 bushels barley per acre; another farmer
got 39 bushels per acre, while a neighbour got 40 bushels.
RedclifTe. — A farmer near here threshed 4,200 bushels
of wheat from 75 acres, an average of 56 bushels. An-
other man threshed 450 acres of wheat which yielded
19.000 bushels, or an average of over 42 bushels per
acre for the entire crop.
Raymond. — One wheat field here averaged 54 bushels
per acre, another 55, another 53, and several went over
50. Henry Holmes, who captured first prize for his
bushel of Marquis wheat at the Dry Farming Congress
in 1912. took an average of 52 bushels an acre off a 40-
Warner.— A 300-aere field averaged 47 bushels per
acre of wheat. Six thousand seven hundred bushels of
oats were threshed from a 65-acre field. Ten acres of
oats yielded 1,100 bushels, an average of 110 bushels per
acre, and a small plot of fall wheat yielded 50 bushels
Macleod. — Jas. Beattie had 69} (. bushels of wheat
from a 26-acre field. A farmer near here grew 8,000
bushels of wheat which went 63 bushels to the acre.
Daysland. — Some of Jas. A. Benner's wheat went
over 40 bushels to the acre. J. H. Wagner had over 90
bushels of oats to the acre, and of wheat he had over 40
bushels per acre. .
S. A. Tofthagen had 23 acres of wheat which gave 47 bushels to the acre.
Lcthbridge. — Wheat crops from 107 farms in Southern Alberta show
an average of 53 bushels per acre; some of the fields included were small
in area but others took in whole farms. Among the total were 300 acres
which averaged 52 bushels; 100 acres which averagedj60; 320 acres 61 bushels;
175 acres 55 bushels, and 500 acres 52 bushels. Thirty-one acres of
summer fallow yielded 2,292 bushels, an average of 74 bushels per acre.
Three measured acres of wheat yielded 245 bushels, an average of 81J4
bushels per acre. A field of 43 acres averaged 53J^ bushels. A 1-acre
tesl plot Of Marquis wheat yielded 99 bushels, and a 34-acre field averaged
60J4 bushels. There are on this farm 200 acres of Marquis wheat which
it Is expected will average over 50 bushels per acre.
A 25-acre field at Lethbridge yielded 1,503 bushels of wheat, an average
of a trifle over 60 bushels to the acre. The wheat weighed 67 pounds to
the bushel. A field of 150 acres of oats yielded 15,528 bushels, an average
of about 103 bushels per acre; one-
third of this crop was from spring
breaking, the balance from land
broken in the summer of 1914.
Mr. L. A. Felger, manager of the
Ohio Alberta Farming Company,
PENNSYLVANIANS WELL PLEASED WITH WESTERN CANADA.
Voices from Pennsylvania Sound its Praises.
Harrisburg, Pa. — F. A. Harrison, Canadian Government Representative,
says: "I am getting personal letters from some of the farmers who went to
Western Canada from this district in the spring of 1915 and they are all well
pleased with the results obtained during the first year. One farmer writes that
he averaged 54J2 bushels of wheat from 32 acres; 104 bushels of oats per acre
from 18 acres. These crops were obtained from land that had been cultivated
Pure-bred stock of Western Canada is fairly
well shown in the illustration below
Looking them over before sending them to market
A splendid bunch of grass-fed "critters"
the previous year. Another Pennsylvania
farmer who went to Western Canada in
March put 64 acres of grain in newly broken
prairie. His oats averaged 45 bushels, bar-
ley 39, and wheat 27J4- He did so well
that two of his brothers and a cousin are
planning to go in the spring of 1916."
From $6.00 to $32,000.00. — M. A. Lowry, of Taylorville, Alberta, says: " I
came to Alberta sixteen years ago last April, with only $6.00 after our fare and
expenses were paid. I now have six one-quarter sections of good farm land (960
acres), 400 acres under cultivation. Have an 8-room house costing $1,600.00,
a hay barn with capacity of 101 tons of hay and will stable 36 head of stock;
other buildings worth at least $900. Have harnesses for 18 head of work horses,
2 complete sets of machinery except one field cultivator, one threshing machine.
All in good condition and all paid for except $90.00. I have 172 cattle, 54
horses, 40 hogs, 74 sheep, a nice variety of poultry. My land is worth $25.00
per acre or $24,000.00. There is against this land as payments not due and
loans $5,000.00. My live stock and machinery would sell for $13,000.
The first two years in Alberta I was obliged to work out considerably,
not having horses to farm with, but with the aid of my wife we raised good
gardens and got sale for a lot of the garden stuff. It is hard to beat Alberta
for gardens. I soon saw the beauty of this country for mixed farming, and
geven miles south of Lethbridge, reports 20 acres of oats yielding 1 15K bushels
to the acre. He also had wheat yielding from 65 to 75J-3 bushels per acre
.according to methods of cultivation. A 3-acre plot of Irrigated land at the
Government Experimental Station gave an average of 76 bushels of Khakov
wti' Mt to the acre and it weighed 67 lbs. to the measured bushel; a field of
Marquis wheat at same place yielded 65 bushels an acre. From 175 acres
one farmer threshed 9,600 bushels of wheat — over 54 bushels per acre.
A grain expert here believes that the average yield of hard wheat in
Southern Alberta this season, between Calgary and the International Bound-
ary, will reach 40 bushels an acre, establishing a record w hich cannot be
beaten on the entire continent.
turned my attention in that direction, beginning with
hogs as they were the easiest to stock up with. I got a
few calves and colts as fast as I could and held to these
until they were grown. Our milk cows and poultry
practically serve our table.
It is a pleasure to live in Alberta compared with any
other country I have been in. The climate is just rigid
enough in the winter and warm enough in the summer,
with cool nights, to keep us vigorous and well. Consump-
tion and such diseases are almost unknown. Out of a
family of eight children, wife and myself, we have never
suffered any inconvenience from any kind of disease.
We have excellent schools, and due to the Government
being strict to enforce what is known as the "Lord's
Day Act," which prohibits work on Sunday, the church
is usually well attended.
In our schools here the Government furnishes all read-
ers free up to the fourth and compels children to go to
school to the age of 13.
WAR DOES NOT AFFECT FARMERS
Peter Larson, of Dalroy, Alberta, writes: "I arrived in Alberta in July,
1912 coming from Nebraska, and purchased a half-section of land east of
Calgary. In the season of 1913 I had 240 acres in crop and threshed 10,000
bushels of wheat, oats and barley. In 1914 I had 300 acres in crop, and
threshed 9,000 bushels of grain. At the time of writing my crop for this
season is not threshed. So far as the climate is concerned, my family and
myself like it very much. . „
"The fact that C anada is taking a part in the present war does not affect
the farmer, either in increased taxes or otherwise, excepting that we are
receiving better prices for the stuff we have to sell, and therefore making more
. money than before."
YIELDS OF ALBERTA WHEAT AND OATS SEEM UNBELIEVABLE
500 Acres Wheat A>eraged 51 Bushels.— John Foreston of New Dayton,
Alberta, before a Notary Public swore he had 47 bushels of wheat to the acre
from 200 acres. H. G. Stinson of Foremost, Alberta, gave an affidavit that
his 44 acres of wheat averaged 60 bushels to the acre. F. J. Morrison cf New
Dayton. Alberta, signed a sworn statement that he had 51 bushels to the acre
from 500 acres.
Made $'»5,000.00 in 10 Years.— " I came here in 1903 and honiesteaded.
After four years I t>ought another quarter and three years after that I bought
four more quarter-sections, making now in all 960 acres of land. I had 6
horses and 6 cows when 1 came here. I now have 65 horses, 35 head of
c.iitle. 5 hogs. 1 have 75 acres in cultivation. 1 have made $25,000 since
1 came here. I would advise anybody to come here.
Andrew B. Nelson, Holden, Alta."
Made $1?.0©0.00. Would Not Sell.— When I came here in 1903 I home-
steaded One-quarter of railroad land. 1 had 3 horses. 8 head of cattle. After
getting settled I had only $25 in my pocket to start on. Now I have 140
acres under cultivation. I have 30 head of cattle and have sold a number
Poultry Pays the Grocery Bill.
every year. I have 100 chickens, 50 hogs. I have made money in the
Holden District. I am now worth at least $12,000. The Holden District
suits me and I am going to stay in it. J. M. Andrews, Holden, Alta."
Alfalfa. — Many ranchers in Alberta are sowing this crop on an extensive
scale. At the Experimental Farms at Lethbridge and Lacombe an average
of three tons of cured hay per acre has been obtained from non-irrigated lands
in one crop, and two or three crops can be obtained in a year. From these
stations alfalfa seed has been distributed.
As an illustration of the success of this fodder, it was a Maple Creek,
Alberta, farmer who carried off the first, second and sweepstakes prizes at
the Dry Farming Congress at Denver, in the fall of 1915, at w hich exposi-
tion there was shown excellent samples of three cuttings in one year.
Clover. — The little white clover grows profusely everywhere. Alsike and
red varieties succeed wherever tried. Timothy does well. A good market
at from $18 to $20 per ton.
Corn Raising in Alberta. — Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. — Ensilage corn
10 feet high is this town's claim to be included in the corn-belt. It was planted
June 8th and cut September 8th on a farm in
A field of corn near Medicine Hat yielded
40 bushels per acre in 1915.
At the Cardston, Alberta, exhibition in 1915
great interest was centred in the corn exhibit.
There were stalks of North Western Dent that measured nine feet, taken from
a field that yielded eighteen tons to the acre.
Nineteen farmers around Taber, Alberta, had successful plots of sweet
corn averaging one to twenty-five acres each. Their success indicates that
corn will become an important crop in this district.
OTHER AUTHENTIC YIELDS REPORTED FROM DIFFERENT
PARTS OF ALBERTA IN 1915.
Rlddellvale — R B Kiddell
f i / ■ \ • r~\/~i ,i -i i ii
1 1 A
t'amrosc — F I Farlcv
Ridgedotigh — Campbell Bros.
Scotstown — R S Tod
R. S. Tod
Hanna J. W. Taylor."." ""II""
G. A. Burns...
Innisfree — S. D. Horgan
Richdale— W. A. Pinkerton
S. W. Jackson
E. T. Coghlan
E. S. Stafford
E. S. Stafford
McNaUy— T. Moran
Vegrevllle — E. B. Wagar
Hawkdale— W. Havden & Sons
W. Havden & Sons .
Youngstown — A. W. Lyster
Lamont — R. J. Torrie
A Paying Western Farm. — A sample of the productiveness of Canadian
farm lands is found in the experience of Mr. D. H. Engle of Humboldt, Iowa,
who owns a quarter-section in Gleichen, Alberta, He rented this quarter on
the basis that the renter w as to furnish everything except threshing and haul-
ing, and one-third of the net receipts were to go to the owner. Although only
80 acres were in crop, Mr. Engle received a profit of $612.65, which was his
net rental of the land for one season.
ALBERTA'S THREE DIVISION'S
Northern Alberta.— North of the end of steel extends 75 per cent of this
rich province, yet unexploited. When the railways push into Athabaska and
Peace river districts it will be realized that Alberta owns an empire north of the
Saskatchewan, a country set apart by nature to provide homes for millions of
agrarian people, when the plains to the south are filled up. This northern
portion varies from great open stretches of prairie land to .heavily timbered
regions, the whole watered by majestic rivers. The banks of these rivers are
usually covered for miles back with dense timber — spruce and cottonwood
Central Alberta extends from Red Deer river northward to the height
of land between the Saskatchewan and the Athabaska. Its great wealth is in
its deep black humus varying in depth from ten inches to three feet, overlying
a warm subsoil.
The northern and western portions of Central Alberta have some "brush"
land with soil equal to that of the open prairie. The cost of clearing is slight,
and there is the advantage of shelter for cattle, and an absolute assurance of
splendid water. There is a good market for the fuel and timber obtained in
clearing. Practically all of the land between Edmonton and
Athabaska — and between Edmonton and LaBiche to the northeast
— has been subdivided for homesteading.
Southern Alberta is open and rolling, and devoid of timber
except along the streams and the Rocky Mountains' foothills. The
soil is a fertile loam.
This Farmer Made His Money from Cultivating His Land Well in Western Canada. Could Anyone Desire More Complete Surroundings?
ALBERTA PASTURES FURNISH BEEF READY FOR THE CHICAGO MARKET
The climate is ideal, with pleasing summers and mild winters. Stock pasture
in the open air during winter, grazing on the nutritive sun-dried grasses. The
absence of timber in Southern Alberta is compensated for by the supply of coal.
As a grazing country. Southern Alberta has had few
equals, for the hills and valleys well watered, afford excel-
lent pasturage Winter wheat sown on new breaking, or
summer-fallowed land, from the middle of July to the
with the previous year, according to the Dairy Commissioner for the province.
For the year previous the butter output was a little more than 5,000,000
pounds. For the year ending in October of last year the output from six
creameries was 7,400,000 pounds of butter. And the most
gratifying fact is that the prices were better. In addition
to this a lot of cheese was manufactured. Also this fact of
a greater butter output indicates that the farmers are going
end of September, is ready for harvest from the 1st to the 15th of August
In the following year. Climate and soil make this an ideal wheat-growing
district. Considerable spring wheat is grown, as well as oats, barley and flax.
The production of sugar-beets compares favourably with that of Germany and
Water for domestic and farm purposes is easily obtained at reasonable
depth. In certain sections of the Canadian West, as in the American West,
the soil is unexcelled for growing cereals, but the geographical location and
relative position to the rain avenues is not advantageous, not only the requisite
amount of rain but its conservation is essential to the growing of crops, and
that is the meaning of "dry farming." This is being successfully followed
In the southern portion of Southern Alberta. Some of the district can also
be easily and successfully farmed by meansof irrigation.
The organization of free district schools is optional with settlers, the Gov-
ernment liberally supporting them.
Every child in Alberta is given the opportunity of a good, free education.
For the past three or four years schools have been opened up at the rate of one
a day, and educational facilities range from the little wooden schoolhouse in
a remote country district to the progressive new university at Edmonton.
Any part of Alberta may be created into a publig school district, provided
that it does not exceed five miles in length or breadth, and contains four per-
sons resident, who would be liable to assessment, and eight children between
the ages of five and sixteen.
The Government has established free agricultural
and domestic science schools for farmers' sons and
daughters during the winter season. Demonstration
Farms, which are in reality model agricultural schools
for the neighbouring farmer, have been established by
the Government at several points throughout the
As a result of such liberal encouragement the farmers
of Alberta become from year to year more thoroughly
organized and up-to-date. Last year they owned and
controlled 50 co-operative elevators, and next season
will control 100, making arrangements as well for a
more advantageous system of marketing their grain.
Railways. — The province is exceedingly well served
with railways, there being the Canadian Pacific, Cana-
dian Northern, Grand Trunk Pacific, and their branches,
as well as the Provincial government road building to
Government and Other Telephones. — The Government operates the
telephone system, including about 9,000 miles of long distance wires, and
12.000 miles of rural or farmers' lines, and pursues an active policy of stimulat-
ing the organization of rural companies by giving as a bonus all poles required.
Cattle Raising. — No less profitable than grain-growing in Alberta is
cattle-raising. For the most part of the year they feed out-doors, and re-
quire very little attention. There is plenty of water, and in the northern
or central portion ample shelter. The wild grasses make the best of feed,
but now a great many farmers are taking up the cultivation of the tame
grasvs. With these they all do well, alfalfa being a special favourite.
Excellent yields are always secured.
t attle from the Macleod district recently commanded the highest figures
at the Chicago markrt for range steers, and they not only brought the best
price on the day of sale but also the best price for any cattle of same class
last season. The shipment consisted of 280 head of range steers and the
prices ran from $8.55 to $8.90 per 100 lbs. Seventeen of the steers averaged
1,240 lbs each. This is the third year In succession that Macleod steers have
been shipped to Chicago and have topped the market.
Alberta's Butter Production.— The butter output of Alberta has in-
creased approximately 2,000,000 pounds during the past year, as compared
MILITARY SERVICE IN
CANADA IS VOLUNTARY
No man is compelled to join the
army or serve in the trenches.
Canada's military forces are
composed entirely of volunteers;
all men are free to serve or not
serve, as they themselves decide.
There is no conscription in
in for mixed farming to a greater extent. This is true not only of the northern
districts of the province, but throughout the whole province, notwithstanding
that the southern part has in the past been mainly a grain-raising country.
The province has 58 creameries.
During the past season, one Edmonton firm paid the farmers of Hardisty
district $7,200 for milk and cream and, as a local paper remarks, this is just
so much "found" profit, as the cows pasture on the open prairie and there is
little or no expense connected with their keep. v The prices paid for butter
fat averaged about 24c per lb. Although the farmers have been very successful
with their grain crops, they realize that the surest and most permanent pros-
perity comes from mixed farming, and the dairy industry of the country,
important as it already is, is only in its infancy.
Fruit Growing. — Small fruits do well jn all districts. Crabapples, apples
and plums are grown south of Edmonton.
In Southern Alberta strawberries ripen in August and have an ex-
cellent flavour. Heavy mulching in winter is necessary.
Ripe strawberries were picked in open gardens in Medicine Hat on October 28.
The postmaster at Hardisty picked 156 quarts of fine strawberries from a
plot one-twentieth of an acre in extent, which proves conclusively the entire
suitability of this country for small fruit cultivation.
A settler at Beaver Lake ripened twenty melons in the open air, without
glass protection. Many farmers are having good success with a special variety
of crabapples, which is excellent for cooking and preserving and which it is
claimed can be grown in any quantity.
Spring Wheat. The leading varieties are Red Fife
and Marquis, which grade hard and are known as
Manitoba Hard Wheat. They fetch a higher price
than any other varieties grown. The Marquis, a re-
cent development, matures about 15 days earlier than
Comparison Yield, Alberta and Western States.
For the five years, 1908 to 1912 inclusive, the average
yield of spring wheat per acre in Alberta and the Western
States was as follows: Alberta, 20.6; Iowa, 16.4; Min-
nesota, 16.2; Wisconsin, 14.7; Nebraska, 13; S. Dakota,
11.4; N.Dakota, 11.5; Kansas, 8.9.
Oats. — The central portion of the province is re-
nowned for its superior quality of oats. In Edmonton
district 50 to 60 bushels to the acre is ordinary, and 125
bushels not uncommon. For four years the first prize
grain at the Provincial Seed Fair has weighed not less
than 48 lbs. to the bushel. The average yield per acre
is 36.42 by measure; average weight over 45 lbs. per bushel. Barley, flax and
rye are also very successful crops.
Sunshine.— In the north, from June 1 to August 1 there are but two hours
of darkness. The almost continuous sunlight causes very rapid fructification.
Rainfall.— The greatest rainfall is in May, June, July and part of August—
the growing season. The latter parts of August and September are dry.
Alberta Soils.— Frank T. Shutt, M. A. F. I. C., Dominion Chemist, says:
"It may be said that, as Southern Alberta is of the true prairie character,
so Northern Alberta is largely wooded, enjoying a more liberal rainfall and
is naturally a country better adapted to mixed farming. The soils of North-
ern Alberta are for the most part characterized by high percentages of
organic matter and nitrogen.
Available Homesteads.— These are to be found west and north of Edmon-
ton—territory made accessible by the Grand Trunk Pacific and the Canadian
Northern Railways— in an immense stretch of splendid country. Wheat
and oats are reliable crops. Rainfail is certain. Mixed farming is highly
successful. The wild grasses and pea vine supply ample feed for stock; water
is plentiful and easily secured. On into the foothills and the mountains are
stretches of prairie land, through which the Grand Trunk Pacific and Canadian
Northern railways are constructed.
The "California" of Canada
RICH IN NATURAL RESOURCES
GRAIN, STOCK RAISING, FRUIT GROWING, MINING, LUMBERING, FISHING
IT IS NOT so long ago that agriculture was regarded as quite a secondary
consideration in British Columbia. The construction of railroads and
the settlement of the valleys in the wake of the miner and the lumberman,
have entirely dissipated that idea. The agricultural possibilities of British
Columbia are now fully appreciated locally, and the outside world is also be-
ginning to realize that the Pacific Province has rich assets in its arable and
As far north as the fifty-fourth degree it has been practically demon-
strated that apples will flourish, while in. the southern belt the more delicate
fruits — peaches, grapes, and apricots, are an assured crop.
On a trip through the valley one sees apple orchards with the trees fairly
groaning under their loads of fruit, and pear, plum, and prune trees In like
manner. In many places be-
tween the trees there are rows
of potatoes, cabbages, and
other vegetables, showing
that the land is really produc-
ing a double crop. Grapes,
water-melons, and muskmel-
ons also thrive in the valley,
and large quantities of each
are grown. Tomatoes, cher-
ries, and berries of all kinds
are grown extensively.
Wheat, oats, and corn give
excellent yields. As an in-
stance, one man's wheat crop
this season averages 4S'A
bushels to the acre. Of
prunes, one orchardist grew
a crop of 7,000 boxes. The
apples shipped find a ready
market in Calgary, Regina,
and in the other cities in the
prairie provinces. Prices this
year are considerably better
than they were a year ago.
Last year this valley produced
350 carloads of fruit and
vegetables, and some of the
farmers have made net profits
of as high as $250 an acre.
Railways. — There are three
transcontinental lines of railway running through this province and each has
opened up a territory valuable for agriculture, mining and fishing, and also
gjves opportunity for the tourist to view the most magnificent and awe-
inspiring scenery on the continent.
In the valleys, of which there are many, there are tracts of wonderfully rich
land, largely of alluvial deposits, that give paying returns.
The Columbia and Kootenay Valleys, comprising the districts of Cranbrook,
Nelson, Windermere, Slocan, Golden and Revelstoke, are very rich. The
eastern portion requires irrigation ; they are well suited to fruit farming and
all kinds of roots and vegetables. Timber lands are said to be the best, when
cleared. In the western portion of these valleys there are considerable areas
The excellent quality of British Columbia fruit has
found it a market in all parts of the world. Large
shipments are now being made to Australia.
of fertile land, suitable for fruit growing. The available land is largely held
by private individuals.
The valleys of the Okanagan, Nicola, Similkameen, Kettle, North and
South Thompson, and the Boundary are immensely rich in possibilities. The
advent of the small farmer and fruit grower has driven the cattle industry
northward into the Central district of the province. The ranges are now
divided into small parcels, occupied by fruit growers and small farmers. Irri-
gation is necessary in most places, but water is easy to acquire.
The Land Recording District of New Westminster is one of the richest
agricultural districts of the province and includes all the fertile valley of the
Lower Fraser. The climate is mild, with much rain in winter. The timber
is very heavy and the underbrush thick. Heavy crops of hay, grain, and
roots are raised, and fruit
growing is here brought to
perfection. The natural pre-
cipitation is sufficient for all
For about seventy miles
along the Fraser River there
are farms which yield their
owners revenues from $4,000
to $7,000 a year; this land
is now worth from $100 to
$1,000 an acre. As much as
5 tons of hay, 120 bushels of
oats, 20 tons of potatoes, and
50 tons of roots have been
raised per acre.
Vancouver Inland, with
its great wealth of natural
resources and its commanding
position, is fast becoming
one of the richest and most
prosperous portions of the
province. Its large area of
agricultural land is heavily
timbered and costly to clear
by individual effort, but the
railroad companies are clear-
ing, to encourage agricultural
development. Most farmers
raise live stock, do some dairy-
ing and grow fruit. Grains,
grasses, roots, and vegetables grow to perfection and yield heavily. Apples,
pears, plums, prunes, and cherries grow luxuriantly, while the more tender
fruits — peaches, apricots, nectarines, and grapes attain perfection in the
southern districts when carefully cultivated.
Central British Columbia, through which the Grand Trunk Pacific
transcontinental line gives excellent service to settlers and business men,
comprises the valleys of the Bulkley, Endako, Nechaco, Fraser, and Stuart,
where there is considerable land inviting to the settler. The soil and climate
of the valleys extending westward to the Bulkley are adapted to grain grow-
ing and cattle raising, while further westward and to within fifty miles of
the west coast belt apple culture as well is successful.
Down the Fraser from Fort George there is active development in settle-
ment, and wheat, oats, barley and hay are highly productive; the climate is
good. The soil is a brown silt covered by a layer of vegetable mould, and the
timber is light and easy to clear.
Along the Nechaco, between Prince George and Fraser Lake, is same character
of soil and a similar country, there being large tracts well fitted for general
farming. Native grasses yield abundant food; there is ample rainfall, and the
winter climate moderates as the coast is approached.
North of Fort Fraser there is good grazing and farming
land, somewhat timbered and covered with rich grasses.
The prevailing price is $25 an acre; owners are not partic-
ularly anxious to sell.
Grain. — Wheat is grown principally in the Fraser,
Okanagan, and Spallumcheen Valleys and in the country
around Kamloops. Barley of excellent Quality is grown in
many parts of the province.
Oats are the principal grain
crop, the quality and yield be-
ing good, and the demand
beyond the quantity grown.
Potatoes, turnips, carrots,
mangolds, and all other roots
grow in profusion wherever
their cultivation has been
attempted. Hop culture is
carried on in the Okanagan,
Agassiz, and ChJUlwak dis-
tricts. British Columbia hops
command a good price in Eng-
land, and recently Eastern
Canada and Australia have
bidforthem. Some attention
has been given to the cultiva-
tion of sugar-beets, tobacco,
and celery, and in each case
with the most gratifying
results, ensuring an early
expansion of operations in
all of these lines.
The annual total agricultural production of the province is about 145^
million dollars, but there is imported another 15 million dollars' worth.
British Columbia agriculturists and fruit growers are particularly fortunate
in having a splendid home market for their products, and for their surplus
there is the enormous present and illimitable future demand of the prairie prov-
inces, assuring always good prices and ready sale for everything they produce.
Stock. — Dairying pays handsomely in British Columbia. The local demand
for butter is constantly increasing and the prices secured are higher than in
Eastern Canada. The province possesses many elements necessary to con-
stitute it a great dairying country. There are extensive areas of pastoral land
In the interior, while increased cultivation in the lower country will form the
necessary feeding ground. With a plentiful supply of good water, and luxuriant
and nutritious grasses, there is every required facility added. Cattle raising
on a large scale was formerly one of the chief industries of the province,
and many of the large ranches are still making money, but the tendency
of late has been for smaller herds and the improvement of the stock.
Sheep raising, is another branch of agriculture capable of great expansion.
Hogs, in small farming, are probably the most profitable of live stock,
owing to the general demand for pork, bacon, ham, and lard, and much
attention is now being given to raising them. Over 1 million dollars of hog
products are imported annually, and prices are always high. The demand
for good horses, especially heavy draft
and working animals, is always
increasing, and prices are conse-
Dairy Products.— This industry
reaches a valuation of nearly 4 million
dollars annually. Poultry raising is
a branch of general farming which is
beginning to receive special attention
in British Columbia. The home mar-
ket Is nowhere nearly supplied, neither
with eggs or poultry, large quantities
being Imported from Manitoba, On-
tario, California, Washington, and
elsewhere. Good prices prevail at all
seasons of the year. Every portion
of British Columbia is suitable for
poultry raising. In the Coast dis-
tricts, hens, ducks, and geese can be
raised to great advantage, and the
dry belts and uplands are partic-
ularly w ell adapted to turkeys.
Mineral Resources. — The pre-
cious and useful metals abound in
British Columbia, and it was the dis-
covery of placer gold in the Cariboo
One of the big assets of British Columbia is its supply of fir, pine, cedar
and other woods. The Douglas fir grows to immense proportions.
There remains in the Province supply sufficient for years to come.
District that first attracted attention to the province. Occurrences of
copper, gold, silver and lead ores are widespread, and mining is being car-
ried on in those districts convenient to transportation facilities. Coal is
extensively mined in Vancouver Island, in the Crow's Nest Pass district and,
more recently, in the Nicola Valley region. Miners' wages are high, and
there is usually a constant demand for workmen. The value of the mineral
production last year was 32 million dollars, of which coal contributed 9
million and copper 8 million dollars.
Timber. — Next in importance, at the present time,
are the timber resources. It is admitted that the largest
remaining areas of first-class
Wide ranges of luxuriant building timbers in the world
grasses, a suitable climate, are in British Columbia. The
and a wide market make lumber industry has increased
dairying in British Columbia enormously of recent years
highly profitable. owing to the demand from
the rapidly growing prairie
provinces. For many years
to come it will have to un-
dergo constant expansion to
keep pace with the ever-
growing needs of the untim-
bered prairie regions. The
principal woods are Douglas
fir, cedar, spruce, tamarac,
pine and hemlock.
Fisheries. — This province
has risen to the rank of the
greatest fish-producing prov-
ince in the Dominion.
Besides its extensive salmon
fisheries, it has lying within
easy distance of the northern
part of its coast line, ex-
tremely rich halibut grounds,
while herring are in great
abundance all along its shores.
These various branches of
the fishing industry are being
rapidly developed, but there is yet room for great expansion. The value of
the fisheries of the provinces for 1913 amounted to about 11 million dollars.
Climate. — Near the coast the average number of days in the year below
freezing is fifteen; rainfall varies from 40 to 100 inches. Farther inland the
average number of days in the year below freezing is sixty-five. The northern
districts of Hazleton, Pearl River, Cassiar, and Atlin are somewhat colder.
Ocean currents and moisture-laden winds from the Pacific exercise a moderat-
ing influence upon the climate of the coast. The westerly winds, arrested in
their passage east by the Coast Range, create what is known as the "dry
belt" east of the mountains; the higher air currents carry the moisture to
the lofty peaks of the Selkirks, and the precipitation in the eastern portion
of the province is greater than in the central district, thus a series of alternate
moist and dry belts is formed. The province offers a choice of a dry or
moist climate, an almost total absence of extremes of heat and cold, freedom
from malaria, and conditions most favourable.
A Rich Province. — British Columbia coal measures are sufficient to supply
the world for centuries. It possesses the greatest compact area of merchantable
timber in the world. The mines are in the early stages of their development,
and have already produced about 400 million dollars, of which coal con-
tributed 122 million. The value of the mineral production in 1911 was 30
million dollars. The fisheries return an average annual yield of nearly 10
million dollars. British Columbia's
trade, per head of population, is the
largest in the world. The chief ex-
ports are salmon, coal, gold, silver,
copper, lead, timber, masts and spars,
furs and skins, whale-oil, sealskins,
hops, and fruit.
How to get the Land.— Crown
lands in British Columbia are laid
off and surveyed into townships,
containing thirty-six sections of one
square mile in each. The head of a
family, a widow, or single man over
the age of eighteen years, and a
British subject (or any alien upon
making a declaration of his intention
to become a British subject) may
for agricultural purposes record any
tract of unoccupied and unreserved
crown land (not being an Indian
settlement), not exceeding 160 acres
Free homesteads are not granted.
The pre-emptor of land must pay $1
an acre for it, live upon it for two
years, and improve it to the extent
of $2.50 per acre.
Settlers from United States Well
Satisfied With Canada.
Many of Them Had Returns of From $20 to $35
per Acre in 1915
THE reports given
by former Amer-
icans now resi-
dents of Canada give
convincing evidence of
the satisfactory con-
dition in which they are
Mr. our Nyberg f Shell
Lake. Sask.. for hi* first crop
put in 17 acres of wheat anil
is amply repaid for his labor.
His neighbours got 25 and 35
bushels. The soil, he says,
"is of the very best quality. About two miles southwest of Shellbrooke there
are several townships in w : hich most of the land is yet open for honiesteading.
The .-oii is rich, but the land somewhat rolling and a little wooded in places,
but not sufficient to interfere with farming. There is also plenty of good
meadow-land We have a good Scandinavian settlement; are about 20 miles
from railroad station— Leask or North Battleford — and I think this is a
splendid place for new settlers."
O. V. strand writes from Zealand ia. Sask.: "We
have had the biggest crop ever raised here — wheat
averaged over 40 bushels to the acre on stubble and
summer fallow, and oats over 73 bushels on stubble,
and prices are good."
Mr. Hans Ellcsen, Granum. Alberta: "We got
a fine crop this year — from 40 to 60 bushels of wheat
per icre and the farmers are very well pleased with
results, espeeiallv as prices are good."
Mr. Henry Padberg of Muhlbach. Alberta, had a
yield from 170 acres of over 3,600 bushels of wheat
and 2.300 bushels of oats. On a farm near his place,
where he had worked part of the time, they got 100,000 bushels of wheat and
30.000 bushels of oats on 3,200 acres.
Edward K. K^ani writes from Ratner, Sask., in December. 1915: "I
returned a few days ago from a trip down to where I have been during thresh-
ing time in order to make a little extra money. Where I worked, about 150
miles southwest from Saskatoon, they had a most abundant crop. As an
example, w ill mention that one farmer got 14.500 bushels this year. While
traveling along the line from Elrose north 1 noticed such a great number of new-
buildings added to the little towns — they contain the farmers' wheat — as the
elevators were all full. Winter is here now, but up to date have had no cold to
speak of. We have a little brush for protection and fuel. The settlers in this
district got a fine crop,
too. and have every rea-
son to be satisfied. A
new ehurch is being built
in our community and
we hope it will soon be
Mr. Dan Swanson
writes from Kaiser,
Sask., in September,
1915. as follows: "We
have had a dry and
warm summer with
some showers, which
have helped the crops.
We have fine wheat
fields now and they are
very valuable as the
price on wheat is way
up. A lot of the farm-
ers were quite worried about how to get help to harvest the crop this fall, as
a lot of our young men have gone to the war, but everything seems to turn
out all right as a lot of men have come here from the States and there is no lack
of help now. They are all happy to get work and are paid S3 per day and
B. E. Skeith of New Dayton, Alberta, got an average of 48 bushels
on 670 acres wheat. He worked during harvest (for the Miami Farming
Co., Dayton, Alberta), where the average was 53 bushels of wheat per acre on
Pastor O. J. Saetre writes from Kincaid, Sask., in November, 1915:
"The crop has been way above expectations here this year. A good deal
is not. threshed yet in this district, though we have had a tieautiful fall, but
the yield was so immense < up to 76 bushels
per acre) that the threshers could not stand
to do any more, but we are in hopes that
the 2ood weather will continue yet a while
until all is finished."
Helge Amondson writes as follows
There are thousands of Canadian
farmers this winter visiting their old
homes and friends in your state. Per-
haps you know some of these. If so,
ask them about the progress they are
making in Canada.
from Spalding, Sask.. in No-
vember. 1915: " We got a
fine crop in this distriet this
year. The wheat went, from
35 to 52 bushels per acre and
oats from 70 to 90. and
threshing is almost finished.
Winter has set in with quite
a little snow, but the weather
is fine. It looks now as
though we would have a rail-
road here next summer "
John P. My lire writes
from Paddling Lake, Sask.,
on December. 1915, as fol-
lows: "Paddling Lake is a
post office. We have the
best land one can find with a
little timber on it. We got
over 30 bushels of wheat and 70 bushels of oats per acre on new broken land
We have four threshing outfits here now. We got potatoes this fall that were
as big as any I ever saw, and cabbage as big as the head of an ox."
Bernhard J. Johnson, living near Tribune, Sask., writes in December,
1915: "Our little town of Tribune is not as large as Winnipeg but we can
get anything we want here anyway. There are not many Scandinavians
located in tow n, but a great number of them in the settle-
ment in which I live, and there is room for more.
Of course, most of the homestead land was taken up
years ago, which shows that a good thing advertises
itself. The land is good for all kinds of farming— as
good as anyone could wish for. When I say that
there is room for more Scandinavians in this district,
I mean that good land can yet be bought at reasonable
figures, but as soon as the war is over, there is no
doubt but what land will go up in value."
Report from one of Canada's German Settlements
Bruno, SasK., January 10, 1916.
Comparative Areas and Yields of Wheat, Oats and Barley in the Northwest Provinces
for the years 1012-13-14-15.
Oats . .
Mr. C. J. Broughton.
Canadian Government Agent, Chicago, 111.
Dear Mr. Broughton:
"Ten years ago I first met you and talked homesteading in Canada: with
your advice I went to Bruno, Sask., picked out my homestead and stayed until
November 1, 1915. Then came back for mv stock. I had a small sum of
money w hen I left and to-day have 100 head of cattle, 15 head of horses, 320
acres of land and improvements, everything paid for and clear.
"The climate is most healthy and my wife and I are quite satisfied with
everything. Am now a Canadian citizen though formerly a German from
Illinois, and I want to say to you that there is a big German colony surrounding
me and they are all well
satisfied with their sur-
roundings, and with the
all have done well. The
pretty low at times —
sometimes 35 to 40 be-
low zero, but none of us
from Illinois fear the
cold as it does not seem
to affect us as it did in
Illinois — it is a dry
" This year our wheat
averaged from 40 to 45
bushels to the acre; oats
from 60 to 70 bushels
and prices very good.
"Thanking you for
your advice and help and hoping to see you at our home, I am,
Yours truly, (Signed)
The above are Dominion Government figures. The figures given by the Provincial Government are higher than these.
Thousands of Homesteads Available
The natural resources of Western Canada are most varied and abundant;
first and foremost is the soil, of which a well known English Agriculturist and
Chemist, Professor Tanner, wrote: "Although we have hitherto considered
the black earth of central Russia the richest in the world, that land now has
to yield its distinguished position to the rich, deep, black soil of Western Can-
ada." Other experts bear equally strong testimony to its value. Notwith-
standing this, the amount of land under
cultivation is not one-tenth of that
available. There are at least 175,000
homesteads open for settlement at the
present time equal in quality to anything
yet taken up
Threshing forty-five bushels to the acre wheat in Western Canada
[PERTINENT QUERIES— EXPLICIT REPLIES]
Owing to the number of questions asked daily, it has been deemed advis-
able to put in condensed form, such questions as most naturally occur, giving
the answers which experience dictates as appropriate, conveying the informa-
tion commonly asked for. If the reader does not find here the answer to his
particular difficulty, a letter to the Superintendent of Immigration, Ottawa,
Canada, or to any Government Agent whose name appears on the inside of
the front cover of this publication, will secure full particulars.
1. Where are the lands to which reference is made ?
In Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta in British Columbia.
2. What kind of land is it ?
The land is mostly prairie (except in British Columbia) and can be secured
free from timber and stones, if desired, the soil being the very best alluvial
black loam from one to two feet deep, with a clay subsoil. It is just rolling
enough to give good drainage, and in places there is plenty of timber, while
some is underlaid with good coal.
3. If the land is what yon say, why is the Government giving it away?
The Government, knowing that agriculture is the foundation of a progressive
country, and that large yields of farm produce insure prosperity in all other
branches of business, is doing everything in its power to encourage settle-
ment. It is much better for each man to own his own farm, therefore a free
fraii- of 160 acres is given to every man who will reside upon and cultivate it.
4. Is it timber or prairie land ?
The province of Manitoba has considerable open prairie, especially, in the
southwest; towards the centre it is parklike with some timber belts in parts.
The southern parts of Saskatchewan and Alberta are chiefly open prairie
with growths of timber along the streams. As you go north or northwest
about 20 per cent of the country may be said to be timbered.
5. Then as to climate ?
The summer days are warm and the nights cool. The fall and spring are
most delightful, although it may be said that winter breaks almost into sum-
mer, and the latter lasts until October. Winters are pleasant and healthful.
There are no pulmonary or other endemic complaints. Snow begins to fall
about the middle of November and in March there is generally very little.
Near the Rocky Mountains the snowfall is not so heavy as farther east, and the
chinook winds have a tempering influence. The absence of the snowfall would
be regretted by the farmer. Nature has generously provided for every mile of
the country, and there is really very little choice with the exception that
farther west the climate is somewhat milder.
6. Is there sufficient rainfall ?
A sufficient supply can be relied upon. The most rain falls in May and
June, when most needed.
7. What are the roads like ?
Bridges and culverts are built where needed, and roadways are usually
graded up, but not gravelled or macadamized. The natural prairie road
is superior to most manufactured roads and affords good travelling in ordinary
seasons and every fall and winter.
8. What sort of people are settled there, and is English generally spoken?
Canadians, English, Scotch, Irish, French, and English-speaking Americans
(who are going in, in large numbers), with Germans and Scandinavians.
English is the language of the country and is spoken everywhere.
9. Will I have to change my citizenship if I go to Canada ?
An alien, before making entry for free homestead land, must declare his
intention of becoming a British subject and become naturalized before obtain-
ing patent for his land. In the meanwhile he can hold possession and exercise
right of ownership. If not a British subject, he must reside three years to
become naturalized. To become a British subject a settler of foreign birth
should make application to anyone authorized to administer oaths in a Cana-
dian court. An alien may purchase land from any of the railway or land
companies and hold title deed without changing his citizenship.
10. How about American money ?
American money is taken everywhere in Canada at its face value.
11. Can a man who has used his homestead right in the United States
take a homestead in Canada ?
12. If a British subject has taken out "citizen papers" in the United States
how does he stand in Canada ?
He must be "repatriated," that is, he must take out a certificate of
naturalization, which can be done after three months' residence in Canada.
13. What grains are raised in western Canada ?
Wheat (winter and spring), oats, barley, flax, speltz, rye and other small
grain?, and corn Is grown chiefly for silo purposes.
14. How long does it take wheat to mature ?
The average time is from 100 to 118 days. This short time is accounted
for by the long hours of sunlight which during the growing and ripening sea-
son, averages 16 hours a day.
15. Can a man raise a crop on the first breaking of his land ?
^ ' -. but it is not well to use the land for any other purpose the first year
than for raising garden vegetables, or perhaps a crop of flax, as it is necessarily
rough on account of the heavy sod not having had time to rot and become
workable. Good yields of oats have been reported on breaking.
16. Is there plenty of hay available?
In many parts there is sufficient wild hay meadow on government or vacant
land, which may be rented at a very low rental, if you have not enough on
your own farm. Experience has proven that timothy, brome, clover and
other cultivated grasses do well. Vields of brome have been reported from
two to four tons per acre. Alfalfa under proper cultivation in many places
gives successful yields.
17. Do vegetables thrive and what kinds are grown ?
Potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, onions,' parsnips, cabbages, peas, beans,
celery, pumpkins, tomatoes, squash, melons, etc., are unequalled anywhere.
18. Can fruit be raised and what varieties ?
Small fruits grow wild. The cultivated are plums, cranberries, strawberries,
gooseberries, raspberries, currants. In British Columbia fruit growing of all
kinds is carried on very extensively and successfully.
19. About what time does seeding begin?
As a rule farmers begin their seeding from the 1st to the loth of April,
sometimes continuing well into May. The average yield of all grains in western
Canada would be largely increased, did not some farmers unwisely do seeding
until the middle of June.
20. How is it for stock raising?
The country has no equal. In many parts cattle and horses are not housed
throughout the winter, and so nutritious are the wild grasses that stock is
marketed without having been fed any grain.
21. In what way can I secure land in western Canada?
By bonvitcading, or purchasing from railway or land companies. The
Dominion Government has no land for sale. The British Columbia Govern-
ment sells land to actual settlers at low figures.
22. Can I get a map or list of lands vacant and open to homestead entry?
Yes, maps are published by the Department of the Interior, Ottawa, show-
ing what lands are available up to a certain date. These are revised from
time to time. Ask for Homestead map of province in which you are inter-
ested. Grain production is also shown by maps. Ask for Cereal map of
From these maps you may arrive at some conclusion as to what part of the
country you would like full particulars about. Any Canadian Government
Agent can then furnish you with complete information about the land avail-
able in that particular locality. A diagram of any township, with the vacant
lands marked, will be supplied free. A competent land guide can be obtained.
23. How far are homestead lands from lines of railway ?
They vary, but at present the nearest will be from 15 to 20 miles. Rail-
ways are being built into the new districts.
24. In which districts are located the most and best available homesteads?
The character of homestead wanted by the settler will decide this. Very
few homesteads are vacant in the southern districts; towards the central and
northern districts of the provinces homesteads are plentiful. They comprise a
territory in which wood for building purposes and fuel are plentiful.
25. Is there any good land close to Rocky mountains?
The nearer you approach the mountains the more hilly it becomes, and
the elevation is too great for grain raising. Cattle and horses do well.
26. If a man take his family there before he selects a homestead can he
get temporary accommodation?
At the following places the Government maintains Immigration halls with
free temporary accommodation for those desiring such and supplying their own
provisions. It is always better for the head of the family, or such member of it
as may be entitled to homestead, to select and make entry for lands before
Biggar, Brandon, Calgary, Caster, Cereal, Edmonton, Edson, Emerson,
Entwistle, Gravelburg, Herbert, Kerrobert, Lloydminster, Lethbridge, Moose
Jaw, North Battleford, North Portal, Prince Albert, Regina, Saskatoon,
Strathcona, South Battleford, Swift Current, Tisdale, Unity, Vegreville,
Vermilion, Viking, Virden, Wainwright, Wilkie, Yonkers.
27. Where must I make my homestead entry ?
At the Dominion Lands Office for the district.
28. Can homestead lands be reserved for a minor?
An agent of Dominion Lands may reserve a quarter-section for a minor
over 17 years of age until he is 18, if his father, or other near relative live
upon homestead or upon farming land owned, not less than 80 acres, within
nine miles of reserved homestead. The minor must make entry in person
within one month after becoming 18 years of age.
29. Can a person borrow money on a homestead before receiving patent?
No; contrary to Dominion Lands Act.
30. Would the time I was away working for a neighbour, or on the
railway or other work count as time on my homestead?
Only actual residence on your homestead will count, and you must reside
on homestead six months in each of three years.
31. Is it permissible to reside with brother, who has filed on adjoining land?
A homesteader may reside with father, mother, son, daughter, brother, or
sister on farming land owned solely by him or her, not less than 80 acres, or
upon homestead entered for by him or her not more than nine miles from
entrant's homestead. Fifty acres of homestead must be brought under culti-
vation, instead of 30 acres, as is the case when there is direct residence.
32. How shall I know what to do or where to go when I reach there ?
Make a careful study of this pamphlet and decide in a general way on the
district in which you wish to settle. Then put yourself in communication with
your nearest Canadian Government Agent, whose name appears on the second
page of cover. At Winnipeg, and in the offices of any of the Dominion Lands
Agents in Canada, are maps showing vacant lands. Having decided on the
district where you will make your home, the services of a competent land
guide may be secured to assist in locating.
33. What is the best way to get there ?
Write your nearest Canadian Government Agent for routes, and settlers' low
railway rate certificate good from the Canadian boundary to destination for
passengers and freight.
34. How much baggage will I be allowed on the Canadian railways?
150 pounds for each full ticket.
35. Are settlers' effects bonded through to destination, or are they ex-
amined at the boundary?
If settler accompanies effects they will be examined at the boundary, with-
out any trouble; if effects are unaccompanied they will go through to the
nearest bonding (or customs) point to destination.
36. In case settler's family follow him what about railway rates ?
On application to Canadian Government Agent, settlers' low railway rate
certificate will be forwarded, and they will be given the settlers' privilege.
37. What is the duty on horses and cattle if a settler should want to take
in more than the number allowed free into Canada ?
When for the improvement of stock, free; otherwise, over one year old, they
will be valued at a minimum of JI50 per head, and duty will be 25 per cent.
38. How much money must one have to start grain farming and how little
can he do with if he goes ranching?
See "Success Achieved by Various Methods." Page 38 herein.
39. How can I procure lands for ranching ?
They may be leased from the Government at a low rental. Write for full
particulars to Secretary of the Interior, Ottawa, Canada. See inside back
40. In those parts which are better for cattle and sheep than for grain,
what does a man do if he has only 160 acres ?
If a settler should desire to go into stock raising and his quarter-section of
100 acres should not prove sufficient to furnish pasture for his stock, he can
make application to the Land Commissioner for a lease for grazing lands for
a term of tw nty-one years, at a very low cost.
41. Where is information to be had about British Columbia?
Apply to Secretary Provincial Bureau of Information, Victoria, B. C.
42. Is living expensive?
Sugar, granulated, "14 to 18 lbs. for $1, according to fluctuation of market.
Tea, 30 to 50 cents a lb.; coffee, 30 to 45 cents a tb.; flour, $2.25 to $3.00 per
98 lbs. Dry goods about eastern Canada prices. Cotton somewhat dearer than
in United States, and woollen goods noticeably cheaper. Stoves and furniture
somewhat higher than eastern prices, owing to freight charges.
43. Are the taxes high?
Taxes on occupied lands are very low being principally for schools, which
run from J10 to S14.50 per quarter section. Other taxes are those largely
controlled by residents of the municipalities. These vary in the different
provinces, and arc such as hail insurance tax, telephone tax. There is also
CANADA WE ST
road work tax In the case of non-residents in Saskatchewan and Alberta
an additional surtax is imposed.
44. Does the Government tax the settler if he lets his cattle run on Govern-
ment lands ? What about line fences ?
The settler is not required to pay a tax for allowing his cattle to run on
Government land, but it is advisable to lease land from the Government for
haying or graiing purposes, when needed. If one fences his land, his adjoining
neighbour has to stand a proportionate share of the cost of the fence adjoining
his property, or build one-half of it himself.
45. Where can a settler sell what he raises? Is there any competition
amongst buyers, or has he got to sell for anything he can get?
Grain is purchesed at ele.ntors and forwarded to the great markets in other
parts of Canada, the United States and Europe. Canadian flour mills, oatmeal
mills, ai d breweries use millions of bushels of grain annually. To the west
and northwest of the prairie country lie mining regions, which are dependent
upon the prairies for supplies and will to a great extent continue to be.
Beef is bought on the hoof at the home of the farmer or rancher. Buyers scour
the country in quest of this product.
46. Where can material for a house and sheds be procured, and about
what would it cost ? What about fuel? Do people suffer from the cold ?
Though there are large tracts of forest in the Canadian west there are locali-
ties where building timber and material is limited, but this has not proven any
drawback as the Government has made provision that should a man settle on
a quarter-section deprived of timber, he can, by making application to the
Dominion Lands Agent, obtain a permit to cut on Government lands free of
charge the following, vis.:
(1.) 3,000 lineal feet of building timber, measuring no more than 12 inches
at the butt, or 9,250 feet board measure. (2.) 400 roofing poles. (3.) 2.000
fencing rails and 500 fence posts. 7 feet long, and not exceeding five (5) inches
in diameter at the small end. (4.) 30 cords of dry fuel wood for firewood.
The settler has only the expense of the cutting and hauling to his homestead.
The principal districts are within easy reach of firewood: the settlers of Alberta
and Saskatchewan are particularly favoured, especially along the various
streams, from some of which they get all the coal they require, at a trifling cost.
No one in the country need suffer from the cold on account of scarcity of fuel.
47. Is it advisable to go into a new country during the winter months with
uncertain weather conditions ?
A few years ago, when settlement was sparse, settlers were advised to wait
until March or April Now that so many have friends in western Canada
there need be no hesitation when to start. Lines of railway penetrate most
of the settled districts, and no one need go far from neighbours already settled.
There is no longer the dread of pioneering, and it is robhed of the romance
that once surrounded it. With farm already selected, it is perfectly safe,
and to the prospective homesteader he can get some sort of occupation until
early spring, when he will be on the ground ready for it.
48. What does lumber cost ?
Spruce boards and dimensions, about $20 per thousand feet; shiplap, $23
to $2S; flooring and siding, $2."> up. according to quality; cedar shingles,
from $3.50 to $4.25 per thousand. These prices fluctuate.
49. What chance is there for employment when a man first goes there
and isn't working on his land ?
There are different industries through the country, outside of farming and
ranching, such as saw mills, flour mills, brick-yards, railroad building in the
.summer, and lumbering in the winter. The chances for employment are good
as a large percentage of those going in and those already there farm so much
that they must have help, and pay good wages. During the past two seasons
from twenty to thirty thousand farm labourers have been brought in each
year from the eastern provinces and the United States to assist in caring for
the large crops. The capable and willing worker is sure to succeed in Canada
50. Can I get employment with a farmer so as to become acquainted with
This can be done through the Commissioner of Immigration at Winnipeg,
who is in a position toofier engagements with well established farmers. Men
experienced in agriculture may expect to receive from $25 up per month with
board aud lodging, engagements, if desired, to extend for twelve months.
Summer wages are from $30 to $35 per month: winter wages $10 to $15.
During harvest wages are higher than this.
51. If I have had no experience and simply desire to learn farming in
westsrn Canada before starting on my own account?
Young men aud others unacquainted with farm life will find positions through
the (iovernment officers at Winnipeg. Wages are dependent upon experience
and qualification. After working for a year in this way, the knowledge acquired
will be sufficient to justify you in gung into farming on your own account.
52. Are there any schools outside the towns?
School districts cannot exceed five miles in length or breadth, and must
contain at least four actual residents, and twelve, children between the ages
of five and sixteen. In almost every locality, where these conditions exist,
schools have been established.
53. Are churches numerous?
The various denominations are well represented and churches are being
built rapidly even in the most remote districts.
54. Can water be secured at reasonable depth?
In most places it can be had at from fifteen to forty feet, while in other
places wells have been sunk to fifty or sixty feet.
55. Where are free homesteads to-day, and how far from railway ?
In some well settled districts it may be possible to secure one. but such
chances are few. Between the lakes in Manitoba as well as north and south-
east of Winnipeg. In the central portions of Saskatchewan, Alberta and west
of Moose Jaw and Swift Current. A splendid homestead area is that lying
north of Battleford, and between Prince Albert and Edmonton. One will
have to go at least twelve or fifteen miles from a line of railway at present,
but extensions will soon make many homesteads available.
WHAT TO TAKE WITH YOU
VALUABLE HINTS FOR THE MAN ABOUT TO START
The newcomer may start for western Canada during any
month in the year.
Railroads earn' him to within a short distance of his new home.
The country roads are pood and there is settlement in all
parts, so that shelter is easily reached.
Temporary provision is required for the family's arrival, when
better may be made.
If going in the winter months, it is well to have a pair of
good strong sleds.
As teams cost S5.00 a day take along your horses and do
your own hauling.
As they require care, write ahead to some livery barn for
In shipping your horses have them loaded by the best shipper
in your home town.
For feeding on the way, put in two-by-four cleats breast high
on the horses, and fix to fit the end of a stout trough which is
dropped in, afterwards nailing on a top cleat.
If they have been used to corn, take along twenty bushels for
each horse, if possible, not only to feed along the way, but to
use while breaking them in to an oat diet.
You need both hay and oat straw on the cars.
The new arrival may have to pay S7.00 a ton for hay and 40
cents per bushel for oats.
Railroad construction consumes lots of both, and not half the
farmers take time in the fall to put up plenty of hay.
Bring all the horses you can.
Five big horses can pull a twelve-inch gang through the sod,
but six can do it easier and you can use five on the harrow.
You can hitch a team to a goat, or scrubber as they call them
here, and lead them behind the drill, making your ground smooth
and packing it lightly, as you put in the seed.
If you have been intending to bring eight horses, bring twelve;
if you were going to bring twelve, bring sixteen.
The first two years on the new land is hard on horses, and
you will need plenty.
If you have any spare time or can get work, they bring in
Two men in mind cleared over 8600.00 apiece doing outside
work this last summer. They worked on the roads, in harvest
and threshing, and received So.00 per day for man and team.
One can get all the outside breaking one's team can do at
$4.00 per acre, so horse power is the main thing.
Take a supply of meat along, also lard, canned goods, and
other things for your cellar.
One settler took a sugar barrel packed with canned fruit,
and had not a single can broken or frozen, wrapping each in
a whole newspaper and then packing in between with old rags,
worn out underwear, old vests and such goods as might other-
wise be thrown away.
Remember there is no old attic or store-room to go to on
the new farm.
Cooked goods are also good.
In the cold weather roasted meat keeps well.
Cookies keep fresh in a tin box.
Bring your cows and also your cream separator. The latter
will not sell for much and is useful here, as you have no place
to store quantities of milk.
Bring at least your two best cows with you on the journey.
P.tck up a supply of groceries in such a way that you can get
at them easily.
Corn starch, tapioca and similar packages are easy to handle
while moving, and a big box of such things make cooking easy
for the first few weeks.
Do not sell anything that can be used in your new farming.
Old belts, singletrees, doubletrees, and such goods are worth far
more away out on the prairies than on the old improved farm,
and they will cost more there.
Bring all sorts of tools and wagon gears with you; you will
save money by doing so; anvil, drills, old bolts, and screws, etc.,
come in handy.
Bring your stock remedies. You will be far from a veteri-
narian. Boracic acid comes in handy, so does a medicine cabinet
for the household, with carbolic salve, liniments, etc.
One of the first things you will need is a hayrack, and you
will not have time to build one before it is needed, so take the old
one or build a new one and take it with you. It can be used for
crating and for partitions and other purposes in loading the car.
Make the sides of the rack quite close and have a solid bottom.
Bring along your base-burner. Coil and wood are plentiful.
So far from town one needs big supplies of kerosene, so bring
a steel barrel that will not become leaky. You can buy oil
cheaper by the barrel and it saves trouble. Also bring a good
oil stove. It will do the baking and save hauling fuel in the long
working season. /
Have a sm ill tank made to carry water in the cars for the
horses, to hold two barrels, about three feet in diameter and
four high, the top soldered on, with a lid just large enough to
get in a pail. It also will be useful to haul water for the house
when you land.